1 1RANGEMANAGEMENT Itisthescienceofobtainingmaximumproductionfromgrassland/scrublandonasustainedbasis

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1RANGEMANAGEMENT
Itisthescienceofobtainingmaximumproductionfromgrassland/scrublandonasustainedbasis.
Rangelandistheuncultivatedareasthatsupportnaturalvegetationandseededherbaceouswithor
withoutscatteredtrees.Itissuitableforgrazingandsurfinganimals.Rangelandistheforemosttypes
oflandsintheecosphere.Theselandsareamajorsourceofforageforcattle,andalsoprovidean
environmentforavarietyofnaturalplantsandanimals.Rangelandisalsousedbysocietyfor
entertainingpurposes.SomePlantspeciesoftheselandsareusedinlandscaping,andasasourceof
industrialchemicals,medicines,andcharcoal.
Rangelandisnotfertilized,planted,wettedorharvestedwithapparatuses.Rangelandsaredifferent
fromPasturelands,whichrequireperiodiccultivationtosustainhostednon-nativespeciesofforage
plants.Pasturelandsmayalsoneedfertilizationorirrigationandareusuallyconfined.
Rangelandswereoriginallyexposed,naturalspaces,butmuchoftheirareahasnowbeenfencedto
accommodatehumanpractices,predominantlylivestockgrazing,whichrequiresrotationsystemthat
needssplitting.
Pastureland(fig1.1).Rangeland(fig1.2).
1.1TYPESOFRANGELAND
Rangelandscareplantcommunitiesthatareconqueredbyspeciesofperennialgrasses,grass-like
plants,forbs,andbrushes.Aroundtheworldtherearefivebasictypesofrangelands,itincludes
naturalgrassland,desertshrubland,savannawoodland,forest,andtundra.Prairiesdonothave
bushesortreesdevelopingonthem.Desertshrublandsarethewidestanddehydratedofrangelands.
Savannawoodlandsareaconversionbetweenprairiesandwoodlandsandcontainherbaceousplants
amongdispersed,lowgrowingbushesandplants.Forestscompriseofbiggertreesdevelopingcloser
togetherthaninsavanna.Tundraareasarewithouttrees,levelgrasslandsinthecoldoratthehigh
altitudesofmountains.

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Forest(fig1.3).Tundra(fig1.5).Prairiesgrassland(fig1.5).
Savannawoodland(fig1.6).Desertscrubland(fig1.7).
NorthAmericanrangelandscompriseof:(1)theprairiefieldsoftheMidwesternUnitedStatesand
reachingoutintoCanada,andinadditionpartsofCaliforniaandthenorthwesternstates;(2)cool
desertrangelandintheGreatBasinoftheUnitedStates,andhotdesert(Mojave,Sonoran,and
Chihuahua)ofthesouthwesternUnitedStatesandnorthernMexico;(3)openforestsfrom
WashingtonstatetoChihuahua,Mexico,andintheRockyandSierra-CascadeMountains;(4)woods
(westernandnorthernconiferous,southernpine,andeasterndeciduous);and(5)hightundra(forthe
mostpartinAlaska,Colorado,andwesternCanada)andicetundra(inAlaskaandnorthernCanada).
1.2RANGELANDMANAGEMENT
Theartandscienceofdevelopmentandaimingrangeusetoobtaincontinuousmaximumanimal
production,reliablewiththepreservationofthenaturalresources.
1.3TYPESOFRANGEMANAGEMENT
Extensive-Tocontrollivestockquantitiesinthepresentabilityoftherange,butlittleornoeffortis
madetoattainuniformsupplyoflivestock.Rangemanagementinvestmentsarenegligibleandonlyto
theextentneededtopreservestewardshipoftherangeinthepresenceofbrowsing.Pastresource
damageismodifiedandresourcesareprotectedfromnaturaldisasters.

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Intensive-Tomaintainfullplantlifeandtoachievefulllivestockutilizationofaccessibleforage.
Thisaimisaccomplishedthroughuseofbetter-qualitybrowsingmethodsandcreationandinstallation
ofrangedevelopments.Traditionalperforms,(seedingandfertilizing),toimproveforagequalityand
capacitymaybeused.
1.4RANGELANDMANAGEMENTTECHNIQUES
Rangelandmanagementtechniquesincludevariousmechanicalmethodswhichinvolvebulldozing,
blading,andtreedozing,chaining,andcabling,railing,rollerchopping,rotobeating,mowing,pipe
harrow,multipleplant–entireplantremovaltechniques,diskplowing,Wheatlandplowing,offset
disking,brushlandplowing,diskchaining,rootraking,rootplowing,springtoothharrow,chisel
plow,Dixieharrow.
Multipleplant-Topgrowthremovaltechniques
1.4.1Bulldozing
Managementuseofbulldozinginvolvecrushingbrush,grabbingtreesandstumps,removing
scatteredtree/brushstands.Itisusedonoak,aspen,pinyon-juniper,willow.
Advantage-Itoperatesonsteepslopes.Itcanstimulateaspenandwillowgrowth.
Disadvantage-soildisturbancerangesfromlighttoheavyandcanincreaseerosion.Itisalsoan
expensivetechnique.Thistechniqueisnotsuitableinrockyareas;bestonuniformareas.Itisnot
effectiveonyoungplants.Thistechniqueisusedinwinter.
1.4.2Blading
Itisusedforrapidlyclearinglargeareas,wellonfrozensoils.Ithasadisadvantageitcanspread
invasivesincludingpricklypear,itisnotsuitableonrockyareasbutbestonuniformareas.This
techniquecanbeusedinwinter,spring,andfall.
1.4.3Treedozing
Itisusedforremovingevenaged,mature,non-sproutingspecies.Itenhancesherbaceousscrub
vegetation.Itcannotoperatebeneaththegroundsurface.Itisnotsuitableforrockyareas.Itcanbe
usedinwinter,springandfallseason.
1.4.4Cabling
Itisusedforthinningonly,lessharshtreatment.Itsadvantageincludereducedkillofsmalltrees/
shrubsofdesirablespecies.Essentiallynodamagetoshrubunder-storyinpinyon-juniperareas.
Tractorstravelfasterwithcable.Itisnotsuitableinareaswithdenseshrubs.Itisusedinspringorfall
season.
1.4.5Railing(railroadrailH-beam,channeliron)

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Itisusedforthinningsmall,brittleshrubstoenhanceherbaceousunderstorygrowth,coversbroadcast
seededareas.Itisnotcostly.Itridesoversmallerplantsandflexibleshrubs.Itcanspreadinvasives
whichisdisadvantageofrailingtechnique,alsostimulatessprouting.Itcanbeusedinearlyspringor
latefall.
1.4.6Rollerchopping
Thistechniqueisusedforcrushingbrushandcompactingwoodymaterialpriortoburning,alsoused
forthinningnon-sproutingshrubs.Itincorporateorganicresidueintosoil.Itisnotsuitableforrocky
areasandsteepslopes.Thistechniqueisusedinearlyspringorlatefall.
1.4.7Rotobeating
Itisusedforcutting/mulchingsmallshrubsatgroundlevel.Itisusedtoclearforestsites,rightof
wayfortreeplanting.itismosteffectivetechniquewhenusedwithothertreatmentssuchasburning,
herbicidesetc.Mulchingpreventerosion,preservesmoisture,preservesherbaceousspecies.Ithas
littleeffectonsoils,usingthistechniqueslopesto35%canbetreated.
Disadvantageinvolve,itisveryexpensive,canspreadinvasives,mostshrubspecieshavetobe
retreatedtoeffectivecontrol.Itisnotsuitableonrockyareas.
1.4.8Mowing
Itisusedtocontrolsmallnonsproutingbrush,prostateplantsnotdamaged,littleeffectonsoil.It
effectivelycontrolsuprightannuals.Itdoesnotkillperennialherbaceousplants,butitspreadrabbit
brushwhendoneinfall.itisnotsuitableforrockyareasorsteepslopes.Thistechniqueisbest
suitabletopreventthespreadofrabbitbrushandinvasives.
1.4.9Pipeharrow
Itisusedforthinninglowbrittlebrush,usedforseededpreparationinrockyareas,alsoeffectivefor
incorporatingresidueafteraburn,scarifiessoilsurface,andcoversbroadcastseedlings.
Thistechniqueisnoteffectiveinrockfreesoils,noteffectiveonlargeshrubs,sproutingplants.
1.5MULTIPLEPLANT-ENTIREPLANTREMOVALTECHNIQUES
Mechanic-
almethod
ManagementuseAdvantageDisadvanta
ge
limitationsSeasonof
use
Disk
plowing
-Kills,shredsbrushfor
seedbeds
-Usedtocontrol
sproutingandnon-
sproutingplants
-Effectiveonsagebrush,
greasewood,
Rabbitbrush
-Leaveswoodymulch
onsoilsurface;to
enhancesoilmoisture
&protection
-Goodforsagebrush
control
-effectiveinreducing
competitionfrom
-Destroys
most
herbaceous
plants;
followup
seedling
required
-Shouldin
donein
early
springand
seededas
soonas
possibleto
reduce
-early
spring,late
fall
-timing
dependon
management
objectives
andplant

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herbaceousvegetation
-Goodformixingand
aeratingsoil.
spreadof
weedsand
rabbit
brush
speciesthat
willbe
seededafter
Wheatland
plowing
-usedongentleterrain
androckfreeareas
-Effectiveon
sagebrush
-Re-
seeding
must
follow
treatment
-Suitable
ongentle
terrain
Androck
freeareas
-earlyspring
orearlyfall
whensoils
aremoist
Brush
land
plowing
-usedtocontrolbrushup
to2’indiameter
-effectiveonheavyto
moderatestandsoflow
non-sproutingbrush
Bestforhardsoilsand
uneven,roughterrain
-wellsuitedforrocky
rough,uneventerrain
-toleraterocksand
stumps
-Doesnot
control
sprouting
shrubs
-2passes
requiredon
heavy
brush
-Canbe
doneany
time
Offset
disking
-usedtocontrolbrushon
hard,dry,heavysoils
-usedtobreakupsoil
compactionon
reclamationareasand
constructionsites
-effectivelycontrol
lighttomoderate
standsofsprouting
brush
-heavykillwithone
treatment
-goodonlightrocky
soils
Mustbe
followed
byseedling
Early
spring,late
fall
Disk
chaining
Usedonrough,heavy
debris
Sitesforseeded
preparation
Flexibleenoughto
rideoverstumps,
rockanddebris
Spring,fall
Root
racking
Uprootingsmallbrush;
combiningrootfromsoil
Pilingandstaking
uprootedtrees
-re-seeding
require
following
treatment
-not
effective
onwet
heavysoils
summer

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Root
plowing
Bestonheavyclaysub-
soils,loosenssurface
-usedonsagebrush,
rabbitbrushandhorse
brush
-leavesmulchor
debrisonsoilsurface
toreduceevaporation
anderosion
Mustseed
after
treatment
unless
rhizomatou
sgrasses
arepresent
-limitedto
deep,
relatively
non-rocky
soils
Early
spring,fall
Spring
tooth
harrow
Usedtoworkdown
roughplowing;
Controlofweeds
seedling;andseedbed
preparation
Providesagood
seedbed
Mustseed
after
treatment
Spring,fall
Chisel
harrow
-usedtobreakupsoilImprovessoil
moisture
Doublesforage
production
Stimulatesnative
perennialgrasses
Early
spring,late
fall
Dixie
harrow
Usedfortreatingbrush
andcreatingdiversityin
coverandageclass
Diversifiesageclass
inbrush
Improvesherbaceous
understory
Up-root
grass
speciesthat
arealready
present
Canspread
invasives
Andrabbit
brush
May
require2
passes
depending
onhow
thickthe
brushis
fall
1.6OTHERMANAGEMENTOPTIONS
Mechanical
method
Managementuseadvantagedisadvantagelimitationseason
ChemicalCanbeusedto
controlundesirable
species
Effectivein
controllingor
thinningbrush
Expensive
Possible
hazardto
humans,
wildlife
Dependingon
chemicaland
target
species,
Mustdonein
Variesgenerally
latespringand
summer

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time
FireEffective
managementtoolfor
rejuvenating
Decadentvegetation
-benefitsforwildlife
andlivestock
-reduceplant
competition
-increasesoil
nutrients
-increase
plantnutrient
value
-increase
forage
production
-improves
habitat
diversity
Increaseforb
production
-reduceslitter
-rejuvenates
sprouting
shrubs/trees
-possible
grazing
deferment/rest
before
burning
-grazing
deferment/rest
afterburning
(plant
establishment)
-temporary
forage
-damageto
non-target
plants
-possible
increasein
undesirable
plants
(rabbitbrush)
Requires
adequate
conditionsto
achieve
desiredeffect
Spring,fall
dependingon
objectives