! !!Assignment 1: Electromagnetics ECE 170 Instructor: Dr. Mohammed Abdul Majid Student: Malak Alnahdi – S14105435 !

!ECE#170!Assignment)1!1!!!TABLE OF CONTNENT !! 1- INTRODUCTION 2 2- APPLICATIONS: a) MRI. b) MAGLEV train. c) Microwave. d) X-ray. 3-6 3- REFRENCES 7

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!ECE#170!Assignment)1!2!!INTRODUCTION: Electromagnetic is the study of physical interactions that happen between the electrical charged particles. It’s a coil of wire that has electricity in them which will causes the magnetic field to be produced. Electromagnetics consist of three waves electric field, magnetic field and magnetic flux density .Electromagnetics can be found in smart phones, televisions, microwaves, x-rays, MRI, etc. that means electromagnetism applications are in our daily life. So in this assignment I’m going to talk about some of the famous applications of electromagnets. Below a picture showing the spectrum of electromagnetism from long wavelength to short wavelength.

!ECE#170!Assignment)1!3!!APPLICATIONS: there are many applications some of them are MRI– microwave – MAGLEV trains (magnetic levitation trains) and x-ray. MRI(MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING): It’s a device that takes a picture of the tissues and organs of the whole body or specific area that takes time from 30 to 60 minutes. So it starts when the patient lies down on the bed and the bed will move to the circular tube to start scanning a particular area of the body so the machine will generate a magnetic filed that is very strong it’s w i t h i n t h e r a n g e b e t w e e n 0 . 2 t o 3 tesla and radio waves around the patient body. The body consist from mostly water so the magnetic field will line up to be straight the hydrogen nuclear (proton) in the body which exist in the blood and muscles then the radio frequency will be applied so all of the protons will rotate to be aligned also another magnetic filed will be used called gradient magnets of different strengths it help to get a 3d image of the internal body structure. And once it terns off the hydrogen nuclear will get back in place.

!ECE#170!Assignment)1!4!!MAGLEV TRAINS: MAGLEV (magnetic levation) trains are considerd the fastest trains on the whole world it moves people from place to another as fast as possible by hovering using electromagnets. They will only have air resistance MAGLEV train minimize resistance because the train is floating above the rail in order to increase the speed. MAGLEV trains consider more expinsive than other trains. Electromagnetic suspension (EMS) it uses the attractive forces between the iron corn electromagnets and ferromagnetic rails so the electromagnets that have current flowing through them are placed under the train that will creates a magnetic field that is attracted to the ferromagnetic which are placed under the guide way rail there is a space between two magnets which will allow the train to float above the rail. Also along the side train there are magnets that are responsible of the forward movments it is provided by north and south magnets on the rail also on the train there are south and north magnets so the poles of the train will switched quickley train will attract and reppled by the same magnet faster while switching will cause the train to be fatser.

!ECE#170!Assignment)1!5!!MICROWAVE: Microwave heat food in less time and less energy than some traditional methods like oven. The microwave uses radio waves to heat food the radio wave will change from microwave to another according to the size of the microwave first step is to change the power of the wall to power that is suitable for the radio waves by using the power changer. Then the radio wave maker will let the power fly through the spaces inside it to let the waves be in the same size and shape after that the radio waves will move through a tube and in order to get to the food at the end of the tube there is a metal spinner that will move in circular motion it will change the shape of the radio waves so the wave will be equal in all of the places in order to let the waves heat up the water inside the food faster water moves faster food will be heated up. Also when the plate spins in circular way to help the temperature get even in the food. !!!!!!!

!ECE#170!Assignment)1!6!!X-RAY: It is a device that used in hospitals it takes a 2d picture of the bones. In a cathode tube with high energy electrons hit the metal component it have two conditions either the energy will get extra and will be slower or when they hit atoms it will kick the electrons. X-ray is type of electromagnetic radiation. X-rays are strong enough so that the waves can get through many kinds of matter. So when the waves can get through many kinds of matter they interfere with electrons either the matter absorbs all of the energy or it absorb some of its energy and the rest scattered they get away. So frequency depends on the electrons each matter have so it will depend on atomic number if high number like gold or platinum it will show up in the picture in bold color and calcium appear in the bone with less atomic number than platinum and gold so it less dense but the bon absorb waves of x-ray very well. In the other hand soft tissues and organs doesn’t show up in x-ray because they have lower atomic number like carbon and oxygen. !

!ECE#170!Assignment)1!7!!REFRENCES: 1# Basics of Electromagnetism. (n.d.). Retrieved February 12, 2018, from https://www.school-for-champions.com/science/electromagnetism.htm#.WoH06jN7H-Y 2# What is Electromagnetism? (2011, August 02). Retrieved February 12, 2018, from http://www.brighthubengineering.com/commercial-electrical-applications/62105-what-is-electromagnetism-and-its-applications/ 3# Lewis, T. (2017, August 11). What is an MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)? Retrieved February 12, 2018, from https://www.livescience.com/39074-what-is-an-mri.html 4# Edmonds, M. (2010, October 25). How MRI Works. Retrieved February 12, 2018, from https://science.howstuffworks.com/mri.htm 5# Bonsor, K. (2000, October 13). How Maglev Trains Work. Retrieved February 12, 2018, from https://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/engines-equipment/maglev-train.htm 6# Working of MAGLEV Trains. (2012, February 16). Retrieved February 12, 2018, from http://www.circuitstoday.com/working-of-maglev-trains 7# Woodford, C. (2017, May 12). Microwave ovens | How do they work? Retrieved February 12, 2018, from http://www.explainthatstuff.com/microwaveovens.html 8# Spector, D. (2014, June 10). How Do Microwaves Cook Food? Retrieved February 12, 2018, from http://www.businessinsider.com/how-do-microwaves-work-2014-6 9# Harris, T. (2002, March 26). How X-rays Work. Retrieved February 12, 2018, from https://science.howstuffworks.com/x-ray.htm 10# Imaginis. (n.d.). Retrieved February 12, 2018, from http://www.imaginis.com/xray/how-does-x-ray-imaginig-work