AMITY INSTITUTE OF APPLIED SCIENCES Synopsis of Seminar/ Term Paper/ Summer Internship /Major Project /Dissertation

AMITY INSTITUTE OF APPLIED SCIENCES
Synopsis of Seminar/ Term Paper/ Summer Internship /Major Project /Dissertation:
Title: Study on perovskite solar cells and how to increase its efficiency
NAME OF GUIDE: Dr. S CHOPRA
NAME OF STUDENT: KRISHNENDU NAIR
ENROLLMENT NO: A4455716010
COURSE: BSc PHYSICS HONRS
BATCH: 2016-19
YEAR: 5th SEMESTER
ABSTRACT
Solar energy is the most abundantly available resource in this world. It is beneficial in many ways. Solar energy is the heat and as well as the light from the sun that is captured with the help of many excogitating technologies such as solar heaters, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar architecture, salt power plants etc. It is one of the considerable source of renewable energy which is broadly categorized as either passive or active. They are categorized based on how it can be captured and spread or convert this form of energy into solar power. Solar energy is mainly absorbed by land surface and also oceans that cover approximately 71% of the entire globe. Solar energy is maximum utilized to produce electricity. The main source of solar energy i.e, sunlight has always influenced the building design from the ancient times itself.
Nowadays the main work is going on how to increase efficiency of solar cell. So the recent work which is taking place is on to make organic solar cell and also by having molten salt approach on perovskite solar cell. The works on the field of these cells are very much developing these days in architecture sector. The lab scales are step by step progressing towards applications for photovoltaics. The architects are very much focused on the production of these cells because of the easiness in production, stability and large time usage. Since the layer for safety has a thickness of 2 micrometer the result points out towards the p type nature of these cells. Generally, the crystallization quality is completely dependent on the voltage when the circuit is open and it’s the value of re-combinations taking place. If we consider MAPbI3 as an absorbing material, then only radiative charge re-combinations will take place having a bandgap between 1.6 and 1.7. These are HTL free systems which state that some useless electron recombination may take place between pscs and graphite which result in comparably high voltages. These high voltage systems were produced by altering the composition by doping layer of graphite along with C for an increased C interface or they used the usual method by putting in in-situ method of lowering temp
The basic concept lies on the assumption that the contact surface is pre-dominantly dark and that means it can absorb almost large amount of sunlight which fall on them and the absorption is done by the perovskites even before it approaches graphite. This means that the carriers are photo generated in the areas where the psc are laid such that +ve carriers are not taken out at Ti02 area. As a result, it was concluded that, a model based on molten-salt approach is presented for an optimized self-assembling and also enhanced crystallization of PSCs for well-structured monolithic graphite-based perovskite solar cells by applying a standardized MAPbI3 formulation. This model shown coherent transport of charge carriers and shown an increase in voltage in open circuit upto a value of one voltage. It was impossible to find out the true value of efficiency of device and so the best was taken into consideration.

PEROVSKITE SOLAR CELLS
The daily based inputs in the field of solar is enough to meet our needs but if we focus on its efficiency, time span and cost effectiveness then there is need for more developments. Almost 80% of solar cells in action are made of silicon according to current reports. Perovskites are man-made material. It is basically a crystal structure which is made up of calcium titanium tri oxide. They are applied on any material which can adapt its same structure and functioning. Many experiments and researches were carried out on these kind of cells and finally many usage of different kind of polymer chemistry was kind of useful.
After so much of inventions in photovoltaics the third generation has reached and perovskites can be calculated as one among the inventions in this generation. This also incorporated DSSCs, QDBs. Perovskites are man-made material. It is basically a crystal structure which is made up of calcium titanium tri oxide. They are applied on any material which can adapt its same structure and functioning. Many experiments and researches were carried out on these kind of cells and finally many usage of different kind of polymer chemistry was kind of useful. Perovskites have characteristic properties like expansive retention range, quick charge detachment, long transport separation of electrons and gaps, long transporter partition lifetime, and that’s only the tip of the iceberg, that make them exceptionally encouraging materials for strong state sunlight based cells. PVCs are the shining stars in the field of solar but yet they have to face so many tests. They are very much capable of absorbing maximum amount of sunlight falling on their surface and they are able to retain sunlight to maximum power. Perovskite PVs in reality hold guarantee for high efficiencies, and also low potential material and lessened handling costs. A major preferred standpoint perovskite PVs have over ordinary sun oriented innovation is that they can respond to different distinctive wavelengths of light, which gives them a chance to change over a greater amount of the daylight that contacts them into power.
Additionally, they offer adaptability, semi-straightforwardness, custom fitted frame factors, light-weight and that’s only the tip of the iceberg. Normally, gadgets planners and analysts are sure that such attributes will open up numerous more applications for sun powered cells. Not with standing its awesome potential, perovskite sun powered cell innovation is still in the beginning periods of commercialization contrasted and other develop sunlight based advancements as there are various concerns remaining. It was always considered that absorber layer and transport layer are very much necessary to achieve a voltage above one. This nature of PSCs was pre told by many other groups. They were completely dependent on kpfm and e- based induced current. Many other reports and researches tell us that if we use some other layer such as NiO2 then the voltage cannot go beyond a certain level and they will be almost down that the perovskite layers. Here MAPbI3 is used as a material for absorption and htl free devices are being used which have high photo-voltage of about one volt.
One issue is their general cost (for a few reasons, primarily since right now the most widely recognized terminal material in perovskite sunlight based cells is gold), and another is that less expensive perovskite sun powered cells have a short life expectancy. Perovskite PVs additionally break down quickly within the sight of dampness and the rot items assault metal cathodes. Substantial epitome to ensure perovskite can add to the cell cost and weight. Scaling up is another issue – detailed high proficiency appraisals have been accomplished utilizing little cells, which is awesome for lab testing, yet too little to ever be utilized as a part of a real sun based board.
The works on the field of these cells are very much developing these days in architecture sector. The lab scales are step by step progressing towards applications for photovoltaics. The architects are very much focused on the production of these cells because of the easiness in production, stability and large time usage. Since the layer for safety has a thickness of 2 micro meter the result points out towards the p type nature of these cells. The daily based inputs in the field of solar is enough to meet our needs but if we focus on its efficiency, time span and cost effectiveness then there is need for more developments. Almost 80% of solar cells in action are made of silicon according to current reports. Perovskites are man-made material. It is basically a crystal structure which is made up of calcium titanium tri oxide. They are applied on any material which can adapt its same structure and functioning. Many experiments and researches were carried out on these kind of cells and finally many usage of different kind of polymer chemistry was kind of useful.
Every technology has to be perfect before its readily available and similar concept is there for perovskite solar cells also. They are under the process of research and are not yet completely studied and that is the reason why it’s not available now in local markets. If we focus completely focus on high efficiency materials, then there is many silicon based solar cells but if a comparison is made between PSCs and this silicon based cells then there is a vast difference in efficiency. PSCs have more efficiency as per the researches that is done. But if durability is compared PSCs lacks behind and silicon based cells have more time span and can face all kind of climate changes. If toxicity is considered, then there also perovskites lead but it’s harmful for users. Silicon solar cells took almost 60-61yrs to reach the markets after every sort of experiments and the PSCs has already reached this level in laboratories. As per scientists if the research works go on with this speed then these cells will come into action within very few years. They are very much focused to implement these cells because it can be of low cost as compared to the ones which are there in market now and the efficiency will also be high. The reason behind the cost effectiveness is that it’s made in lab by human methods and it’s not used in pure form its always altered or doped by some materials. The intrinsic form in p type is mainly used.

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MOLTEN SALT APPROACH ON PEROVSKITE SOLAR CELL
The works on the field of these cells are very much developing these days in architecture sector. The lab scales are step by step progressing towards applications for photovoltaics. The architects are very much focused on the production of these cells because of the easiness in production, stability and large time usage. Since the layer for safety has a thickness of 2 micro meter the result points out towards the p type nature of these cells.

A curve on striking and an efficiency of about 16.9% on power conversion and very much effective demonstrations regarding free solar cell module are reported. Earlier the monolithic graphite based cells were made which mainly used for dye based solar cells. These had a monolithic platform of nano-porous layers and can by falsified by different methods which were approved by various laboratories. There are spacer layers which mainly differentiate between the graphite and Ti02 being used. The perovskites were made in original places and while making it the main problem which was faced was to increase the efficiency of these cells.

Apart from many chemical uses, a physical approach was made on steady state of transport layer of holes by using molten salt. This was done by applying a methylamine based formulation having very low viscosity and also having high concentration which smoothly assembles itself by capillary forces. The direct crystallization of the perovskites was done by removing gas of methylamine and acetonitrile vapour. The falsification of the precursor solution was done by producing pure particles of perovskites by transforming MAPbI3 perovskite. The MP of these particles were reduced down than room temperature by introducing it to gaseous form of methylamine. This finally gave a viscous yellow coloured melted form. The viscosity was lowered by addition of 0.9 ml of acetonitrile per gram of original complex of DMF. The re-dissolution of perovskites was done by the last solution obtained and also ACN evaporation carries out. The molten salt approach was carried out in several other solar cells and the problem found there were the lack of preparing the highly clustered precursors. Adequate time was given for settlement of solution by applying forces and also for the deletion of acetonitrile. The MP is raised back to that of pristine perovskite while deleting MA so that the cells are crystallised.

OBESERVATIONS
The proper filling of these cells are checked be SEM/EDX maps. From this it can be seen that they uniformly laid through the entire layers. Generally, the crystallization quality is completely dependent on the voltage when the circuit is open and it’s the value of re-combinations taking place. If we consider MAPbI3 as an absorbing material, then only radiative charge re-combinations will take place having a bandgap between 1.6 and 1.7. These are HTL free systems which state that some useless electron recombination may take place between pscs and graphite which result in comparably high voltages. These high voltage systems were produced by altering the composition by doping layer of graphite along with C for an increased C interface or they used the usual method by putting in in-situ method of lowering temp.

It was always considered that absorber layer and transport layer are very much necessary to achieve a voltage above one. This nature of PSCs was pre told by many other groups. They were completely dependent on kpfm and e- based induced current. Many other reports and researches tell us that if we use some other layer such as NiO2 then the voltage cannot go beyond a certain level and they will be almost 10-11% down that the perovskite layers. Here MAPbI3 is used as a material for absorption and htl free devices are being used which have high photo-voltage of about one volt.
CONCLUSION
The conclusion that was obtained is shown in diagram. The basic concept lies on the assumption that the contact surface is pre-dominantly dark and that means it can absorb almost large amount of sunlight which fall on them and the absorption is done by the perovskites even before it approaches graphite. This means that the carriers are photo generated in the areas where the psc are laid such that +ve carriers are not taken out at Ti02 area. As a result, it was concluded that, a model based on molten-salt approach is presented for an optimized self-assembling and also enhanced crystallization of PSCs for well-structured monolithic graphite-based perovskite solar cells by applying a standardized MAPbI3 formulation. This model shown coherent transport of charge carriers and shown an increase in voltage in open circuit upto a value of one voltage. It was impossible to find out the true value of efficiency of device and so the best was taken into consideration. So the best cell was observed in certified labs under maximum power which gave out stabilized PSC which is based on graphite and it was given about 12.7%. The conclusion directly point towards the p type nature of solar cells with the truancy of freely generated electrons here as the thickness of cells that was used is quite large.

FUTURE OF PEROVSKITE SOLAR CELLS
The daily based inputs in the field of solar is enough to meet our needs but if we focus on its efficiency, time span and cost effectiveness then there is need for more developments. Almost 80% of solar cells in action are made of silicon according to current reports. Perovskites are man made material. It is basically a crystal structure which is made up of calcium titanium tri oxide. They are applied on any material which can adapt its same structure and functioning. Many experiments and researches were carried out on these kind of cells and finally many usage of different kind of polymer chemistry was kind of useful.
Every technology has to be perfect before its readily available and similar concept is there for perovskite solar cells also. They are under the process of research and are not yet completely studied and that is the reason why it’s not available now in local markets. If we focus completely focus on high efficiency materials then there are many silicon based solar cells but if a comparison is made between PSCs and these silicon based cells then there is a vast difference in efficiency. PSCs have more efficiency as per the researches that is done. But if durability is compared PSCs lacks behind and silicon based cells have more time span and can face all kind of climate changes. If toxicity is considered then there also perovskites lead but it’s harmful for users. Silicon solar cells took almost 60-61yrs to reach the markets after every sort of experiments and the PSCs has already reached this level in laboratories. As per scientists if the research works go on with this speed then these cells will come into action within very few years. They are very much focused to implement these cells because it can be of low cost as compared to the ones which are there in market now and the efficiency will also be high. The reason behind the cost effectiveness is that its made in lab by human methods and its not used in pure form its always altered or doped by some materials. The intrinsic form in p type is mainly used. While making silicon based cells these cells has to be extracted first then it has to undergo many developments and processes.

CONCLUSION
The manufactured gadgets demonstrate effective charge transport and extraction, bringing about a high VOC of 1 V, which is the most noteworthy revealed for a solid, without htl MAPbI3 gadget. It was unrealistic to decide the remedy gadget proficiency by methods for IV-clears. In this way, the best cell was estimated by a certify alignment lab constantly at greatest power point bringing about the most elevated ensured settled productivity for a graphite-based PSC of 12.6%. From quick transient estimations and a steady extinguishing of the photoluminescence under short out conditions we presume that the gadget isn’t transport-constrained. As the perovskite safeguard layer has a vast thickness of 2.5?m, our result comes about point toward a p-type nature of the perovskite with an nonappearance of photo-generated electrons at the back contact in this without HTL gadget.