Argument Reading List Entry 1

Argument Reading List

Entry 1. “Education” Ralph Waldo Emerson

SUMMARY: “Education” is a collection of essays and speeches by Ralph Waldo Emerson, a famous American writer. Throughout the essay Emerson reasons that “true education” can only brought about by human eagerness. He also argues that Mother Nature’s way of teaching and inspiring should not be replaced by the dull and unsuccessful methods of teaching common in schools today. Mother Nature’s teaching allows people to find paths they like while drill learning forces people to be the same. Emerson tries to convince the audience of his idea of how education should be and says that “the enthusiast had found the master, the masters, whom he sought.” (Emerson 190). This quote shows how the enthusiast can learn mother nature’s way by seeking out those that learn, and become their own masters.

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE: The purpose of Emerson’s “Education” is to voice his concerns against the current ways of education that he feels is becoming too mechanized. He talks against this kind of education to persuade teachers to try a more natural method. He also points out many faults in the current education system and shows how a student is not properly prepared for the real world by this system. He gives the story of Charles Fellowes to persuade Although he does not go into the specifics about the implication of his method but he does lay the foundation for others to build upon. He does this by pointing out the faults in the education system and showing why it does not properly prepare students for their futures. He also shows that there is truly only one way to learn, the natural method. He says that spoon feeding the brain and trying to drill facts in does not work as well as the natural method. No matter how hard we try, we always come back to the natural method, trial and error. When we learn something, we want to share it so others can experience and it for themselves.

AUTHOR’S AUDIENCE: The intended audience for “Education” is teachers. Emerson addresses it to teacher because these are the people that are in control of the way students are being taught. He believes that by addressing it to teachers he can convince them to teach in a more natural way.

TECHNICAL INFORMATION/STYLE ANALYSIS: Emerson’s tone throughout the essay is instructive to show how the natural method of teaching should be adopted and informative to show the benefits of teaching mother nature’s way. Emerson’s keeps the sentence structure in the essay short and to the point to keep it simple and so his point is not lost in fancy word choice. He also ties back to his theme of nature being the teacher by using words that allude to the outdoors and nature. Rhetorical questions are also used throughout to allow the reader to come to the same conclusion as Emerson before he fully states his claim and makes them question their original style of teaching Emerson also uses rhetorical questions to appeal to the reader’s emotion. induce an emotional appeal from educators. Emerson’s use of rhetorical questions attacks the educator in such a way that they question their original methods. “What reformer will it nurse? What poet will it breed to sing to the human race?” (105). These are some examples of his use of rhetorical questions.

PERSONAL RESPONSE: I think that this article is very interesting. He talks about the struggles teachers face because they must adjust their classes to teach large amounts of people. His belief on how school should be taught is neat.

Claim 1: Small classes are better for a student’s learning process
Claim 2: Students should have more one on one time with teachers

Entry 2. “I Know Why the Caged Bird Cannot Read” Francine Prose

SUMMARY: In the essay “I Know Why the Caged Bird Cannot Read.”, Francine Prose explains why most students in high school have a strong dislike for reading. She discusses how the majority of high schools have to read the same books, The Scarlet Letter, Romeo And Juliet, and blames these lists for students dislike of reading. She says that the education system forcing young students to read “middlebrow entertainments” is very harmful as well as curriculum that focused solely on teaching values through the literature, rather than the actual literary value of the book.

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE: Francine Prose argues that the choosing of books solely for the study issues is harming students. She explains how many books that almost all high schools must read are teaching students unrealistic things such as there is always a hero who is all good, Atticus, and an enemy who is all evil, Bob Ewell. They also teach bad writing styles to students.
She writes this essay to argue that we should change book lists to books that are more realistic and teach better writing habits so students enjoy writing and reading more.

AUTHOR’S AUDIENCE: The audience is kids and parents of the books that are discussed like scarlet letter and to kill a mockingbird. The audience is also teachers because they can make changes to the problems brought up by the essay.

TECHNICAL INFORMATION/STYLE ANALYSIS: Francine Prose uses similes in her essay to persuade the reader of her claim. She says that “Everything that constitutes style and
that distinguishes writers, one from another, as precisely as fingerprints or DNA mapping” “To hold up this book … is akin to inviting doctors convicted of malpractice.” This shows how Prose believes the current books students are required to read are the reason many students have a strong disliking of reading. She also uses imagery throughout the essay saying that good books are like “works of art” rather than the “murkiness” and “simplicity” that fill high school reading lists.

PERSONAL RESPONSE: This article was interesting. I love to read but many of the books that we read for high school I have disliked. Some of the books though from the list of books we could do for our book report I have enjoyed a lot. This proves the importance of the article and the importance of picking books for their quality.

Claim 1: There should be an updated list of books for students to read
Claim 2: The lack of deep thought provoking books is a cause of students being bad writer
Entry 3 “Serving in Florida” Barbara Ehrenreich 179-186

SUMMARY: “Serving in Florida” is a chapter in the book Nickel and Dimed. It describes Barbara Ehrenreich’s struggles to survive on a minimum wage salary. It starts off as she is looking for a job but her attempt fails and all the places she applies to. She eventually finds a job at a restaurant that is attached to a hotel and meets new people, many are unlike any she has ever met before. Despite working many hours, she cannot make ends meet and has to pick up another job at a food place. This one way busier and drains her more. After two days of trying to work both jobs she fails and has to stop.

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE: The purpose of “Serving in Florida” is to show the struggle of trying to survive on a minimum wage. It also exposes the unfairness of entry level jobs and how little rights they have. It shows the struggle and unfairness in order to inspire change and make life more bearable and humane for the lower class.

AUTHOR’S AUDIENCE: The audience of this chapter is people living comfortably in the upper and middle class. This shows the struggles the bottom half has to endure just to survive. Another audience is people in power such as politicians because Ehrenreich wants them to make more rules and regulations that support the entry level worker.

TECHNICAL INFORMATION/STYLE ANALYSIS: Metaphors are used throughout the chapter and these allow the reader to easily relate to what Ehrenreich is saying despite the fact that they have never experienced it. An example is “The kitchen is a cavern, a stomach leading to the lower intestine that is the garbage and dishwashing area”. Biblical allusion is also used when she says, “as if they were confusing waitressing with Mary Magdalene’s original profession.” This helps the reader understand what she feels. Pathos is also heavily used as Ehrenreich appeals to the readers sense of pity when she says “though no one, I notice, ever brings up anything potentially expensive, like shopping or movies.”

PERSONAL RESPONSE: I thought this article is very interesting. It is a lot like the two other articles we read on poverty and they always stun me at all of the things in my life that I take for advantage.

Claim 1: There should be more opportunities for the less fortunate
Claim 2: There should be more regulations for low paying jobs

Entry 4. “Letter from Birmingham Jail “Martin Luther King Jr. 260-274

SUMMARY: “Letter from Birmingham Jail” was written by Martin Luther King Jr during his 8 day jail sentence that took place in 1963. This letter addresses the fact of the timing of the protest. Many people opposed the movement of equal rights because they claimed the timing was wrong but MLK proves how the timing right now has been carefully thought about, and that those opposing them will always say the time is wrong. He also addresses the issue of being arrested unjustly for being an extremist and redefines it by using examples such as Jesus Christ. It also addresses MLK’s view of the incompetence of the church currently and is an appeal for people to see from his point of view.

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE: King’s purpose was to change the view of the clergy men who disagreed with him, show the timing of the march is right, and justify non violent protests.

AUTHOR’S AUDIENCE: Martin Luther King Jr. has many different audiences for his “Letter from Birmingham Jail” One audience is the member of The Church who publicly attack him for his civil disobedience. Another audience is those who say the timing of the movement is wrong and his final audience is those who flat out disagree with his views.

TECHNICAL INFORMATION/STYLE ANALYSIS: Martin Luther King Jr. makes many allusions to history and the bible to reinforce his claim, “It was evidenced sublimely in the refusal of Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego to obey the laws of Nebuchadnezzar, because a higher moral law was at stake. It was practiced superbly by the early Christians, who were willing to face hungry lions and the excruciating pain of chopping blocks rather than submit to certain unjust laws of the Roman Empire.” These are particularly effective because it shows to the clergymen that he is a man of faith as well and the bible backs up his claims that he makes. His use of parallel structure also helps emphasizing his points. He also uses sarcasm to expose weak points in the opponent’s argument and show why his argument is correct.

PERSONAL RESPONSE: This is a very important article. It is a important part of American history and is a very good example of how to structure a convincing argument.

Claim 1: Civil disobedience is not a crime.
Claim 2: People should speak out when someone is being oppressed.

Entry 5. “Where I Lived, and What I Lived For” Henry David Thoreau 276-281

SUMMARY: Henry David Thoreau was a philosopher and social critic from the early 1800’s. “Where I Lived, and What I Lived For” is a chapter from his book Walden, or Life in the Woods, which is his personal story of living by Walden Pond for two years. In this chapter Thoreau explains why he desired to move away from society and be at one with nature with only the essentials needed to survive. He believes that the majority of people live like ants. He says that they all follow each other and are always in a hurry. He argues that we should get rid of distractions that cause us to live this way such as the news and the post office.

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE: The purpose of “Where i lived, and What I Lived For” is to persuade people to live life to the fullest. Thoreau argues that many people are wasting their lives by worrying to much about what is occurring around them.

AUTHOR’S AUDIENCE: Thoreau’s audience is those who are too caught up in other and worldly things. He addresses it to these people because he gives information about how they can stop doing this and start living life to the fullest capacity.

TECHNICAL INFORMATION/STYLE ANALYSIS: Thoreau builds his argument through the use of metaphors. He says that “time is but the stream I go fishing in”. This shows he doesn’t live his life as dictated by outside sources. He grabs it by the throat much like the weasel and makes his own decisions.

PERSONAL RESPONSE: I really enjoyed this article. I believe what Thoreau said but not to the same extent. The news and the post office are very helpful but not if they become the focus of our lives. One thing that I believe Thoreau would strongly dislike is phones. I think this article is still very relevant today despite being very old.

Entry 6. “The New Community” Amitai Etzioni 289-295

SUMMARY: Amitai Etzioni discusses the common belief about living in rural villages and urban societies and the differences between them. He talks about how many people believed that living in a small “primitive” village is claustrophobic and the big city allows you to spread your wings. He then shifts and talks about America’s change from the greedy (Wall Street), “Me Decade” of the 1980’s to the “We Decade” of the 1990’s. He says that both sides of the political spectrum generally agreed that moving to a more community life style would improve the country. After showing both sides of the argument of small town vs. big town he states his claim that neither one by itself is completely effective and there needs to be a mix of the two for a more productive society.

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE: Amitai Etzioni’s purpose is to convince the reader that the rights of the individual should be balanced with the rights of the community and it should not be unequal either way.

AUTHOR’S AUDIENCE: The audience is working class American citizens. He addresses the article to them because they are the group of people who can make the changes he suggests should occur. He also addresses it to this group of people because many in it still believe the stereotypical beliefs about small town vs big city life

TECHNICAL INFORMATION/STYLE ANALYSIS: Amitai Etzioni heavily relies on logos throughout The Spirit of Community. An example of this is on page 289 when he says, “The two types of social relations have often been labeled with the terms supplied by a German sociologist, Ferdinand Tonnies.” This quote shows how he uses the work of a sociologist to prove his argument. Another example of his use of logos is on page 293; he says that “In 1950 14.4 percent of those sixty-five years of age and older lived alone; by 1990 the percentage stood at nearly 31%”. This use of statistics backs his claim and makes it seem more credible. Etzioni also addresses the opposite point of view, “Some critics have attacked…”, and then refutes it in order, “But people who work every day…” to fully convince the reader that his argument is true.

PERSONAL RESPONSE: I thought this section from his book was interesting. I liked his points about how there should be communities where people are free to make choices but still maintain common bonds.

Entry 7. “The Singer Solution to World Poverty” Peter Singer 319-323

SUMMARY: In the article “Singer Solution to World Poverty”, (The New York Times Magazine, September 5,1999) Peter Singer wants to lead people to spend money on donating to children, and spend less money on buying unnecessary entertainment. He believes that if everyone donated then a massive difference could be made in the world.

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE: The author’s purpose is Purpose to Criticize American Consumerism “That’s right: I’m saying that you shouldn’t buy that new car, take that cruise, redecorate the house or get that pricy new suit. After all, a $1000 suit could save five children’s lives”. He believes that we should stop being so greedy and help the people in need. He wrote this to inspire people.

AUTHOR’S AUDIENCE: His audience is people who are in the upper class. These are the people that can make a change and donate the most money. He specifically targets these people because the will make the biggest difference.

TECHNICAL INFORMATION/STYLE ANALYSIS: The tone in the article is challenging, but rational. His use of highbrow words like “in fact”, and “sufficiently altruistic”, give the essay an intellectual tone and builds the credibility. Peter Singer draws an analogy between Bob’s moral dilemma, and ours, to convince the reader to donate. He Appeals to logos throughout the essay by using statistics and credible outside sources. He uses Ethos through hypothetical examples and rhetorical questions. He builds pathos by including emotional narratives that make the reader want to donate to help out.

PERSONAL RESPONSE: I thought this article from his book was interesting. I liked his points about how there should be communities where people are free to make choices but still maintain common bonds.

Claim 1: All people should donate money no matter how much money they have
Claim 2: The more money a person has, the more money they should donate

Entry 8. “The Myth of the Latin Woman” Judith Ortiz Cofer 370-375

SUMMARY: Judith Ortiz Cofer expresses how she has been damaged by latino stereotypes in the essay “The myth of the Latin Woman: I Just met a girl named Maria” She explains the many stereotypes that latino women have to face such as being “sexually expressive”, common household workers such as maids or service staff. She tells stories about how because she is Latino, men think it is ok to hit on her in ways they would not do to other woman. She also tells the story of how when she was a speaker at an event someone thought she was a member of the service staff. She talks about how she is lucky because she has been able to receive an education and break these stereotypes in her own life.

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE: Cofer’s purpose is to explain how the stereotypes came to be, destroy the stereotypes that people have of Latino women, and empower all Latino women to be strong and independent.

AUTHOR’S AUDIENCE: The audience is minorities or anyone who has been affected by prejudices or stereotypes and especially Latino Women. She addresses it to these groups because they are the ones being prejudiced against.

TECHNICAL INFORMATION/STYLE ANALYSIS: Cofer uses pathos and ethos in the story of when she was assumed to be a waitress and a poetry reading event despite being one of the readers. This builds her pathos because it shows she is a talented and educated woman and this creates anger in the reader that she should be treated this way just because of her skin color.

PERSONAL RESPONSE: I thought this article was very informative. I did not know that much about this stereotype and this helped me see things as they really are.

Claim 1: Stereotypes are harmful to everyone involved
Claim 2: Stereotypes are based off negative past experiences

Entry 9 “Putting Down the Gun” Rebecca Walker 412-414

SUMMARY: Rebecca Walker talks about her son and the pressure that was placed upon him growing up. She discusses how society tries to force boys in their influential developing years, into being manly, athletic, and extremely physical. In the essay she compares this situation to that of an African-American trying to act more white to fit in with his friends. Another example she gives of societies pressures is her daughter acting stupid on purpose in order to be found more attractive by the boys in her class. She discusses how her son after school one day told her that he wanted to play football to gain respect among his classmates. Rebecca Walker voices her fears that her sons desire to conform would derive him of his personality and uniqueness and will eventually end with him wanting to fight in war.

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE: Rebecca Walker’s purpose is to show the damaging effect society had on her son and daughter in order to persuade others to not be deceived. She wants others to not conform because she believes everyone is unique and special and trying to conform to society’s views will cause immense personal and mental damage.

AUTHOR’S AUDIENCE: There are two audiences for this essay. The first is young boys and girls. They are an audience because many of them are already trying to conform to society’s views of how they should be. This essay is written to them because it is trying to show them they don’t have to do this and it will do more damage than good. The other audience is parents of young males and young females to show that these stereotypes are damaging and they should help their kids realize this

TECHNICAL INFORMATION/STYLE ANALYSIS: Walker addresses the counter arguments and uses logic and builds her argument to show why they are wrong. Her most effective rhetorical device is personal narrative. She gives examples of her daughter and son and show how societies standards damaged them. While telling these narratives she uses words with positive connotations to describe he kids, such as “smart”, “intuitive,” and “creative beyond belief,” in order to convince the reader to have compassion on her kids struggle. She also convinces the reader through her enraged tone of a mother whose childrens bright personalities are being oppressed by societies.
PERSONAL RESPONSE: This article is very interesting because i am a young male or was at least. I think some of the stuff that was talked about applies but some of it does not.

Claim 1: Parents should help their kids break stereotypes
Claim 2: Young males are hurt by this stereotype

Entry 10. “Studying Islam, Strengthening the Nation” Peter Berkowitz and Michael
McFaul 559-561

SUMMARY: Peter Berkowitz and Michael McFaul are both research fellows at the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace and wrote the article “Studying Islam, Strengthening the Nation” together. They discuss how almost no universities or other schools have opportunities to learn about Islam or the middle east in general. They talk about how learning about Islam and the middle east will greatly strengthen the individual and the country. They talk about how 9/11 only served to distance people from learning about the middle east and doing so would help to prevent future events like this.

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE: The Author’s purpose is to expose and convince more people to learn about Islam to become more educated. He believes that if the country studies Islam and the middles east than the nation would be strengthened.

AUTHOR’S AUDIENCE: The audience is those who do not know much about the middle east or Islam. This is a large part of the country so Peter Berkowitz and Michael McFaul have a very large audience for this essay. The main audience is those who are continually seeking to learn more and better themselves and this is shown by having the benefits of learning about Islam being continually listed.

TECHNICAL INFORMATION/STYLE ANALYSIS: The author uses lots of examples from real life such as “Our national security interest in this area should also be obvious. As in the Cold War, the war against Islamic extremism will not be won in months or years but in decades. And as in the Cold War, the non-military components of the war will play a crucial role.” He does this to make the subject more personal and easier to understand.

PERSONAL RESPONSE: I thought this article was very interesting because I do not know that much about the middle east. The points that were made about the benefits of learning about Islam were very interesting and I wonder how true they are.

Claim 1: There should be a mandatory class in high school about Islam
Claim 2: There should be a class in high school that just studies different religions

Entry11. “The Clan of One-Breasted Women”Terry Tempest Williams 816

SUMMARY: Terry Tempest Williams starts of her essay,”The Clan of One-Breasted Women”, by explaining that she is part of the Clan of One-Breasted Women. She says that she has seen seven of her family members be diagnosed with breast cancer and then pass away. She states her confusion with this due to the fact that they are members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints who do not smoke, or drink. She then discovers that when she was younger she was exposed to a nuclear blast and believes that this is the cause of her family’s history with cancer. The rest of the essay she tries to get amends from the United States Government for the loss of life her family suffered at their hand..

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE: To argue against blind faith in religion or country proving through her article that both can be wrong and can cause suffering, like how she lost 7 of her family members to cancer that wasn’t their fault.

AUTHOR’S AUDIENCE: The author’s audience is those who are strong of faith. She addresses it to these people because she believes that they are like sheep, following along blindly. She wants to open their eyes and allow them to see the world as it really is and have them make decisions on their own.

TECHNICAL INFORMATION/STYLE ANALYSIS: Williams uses pathos throughout the essay and appeals to the readers sadness and anger as she describes her families fights with cancer that was caused by the government, “I watched beautiful women become bald as Cytoxan, Cisplatin, and Adriamycin were injected into their veins. I held their foreheads as they vomited green-black bile and I shot them with morphine when the pain became inhuman. In the end, I witnessed their last peaceful breaths, becoming a midwife to the rebirth of their souls” (Williams, 1989). In the beginning of the essay Williams tone is of a sad and broken woman but as her argument progresses she becomes angry and passionate.

PERSONAL RESPONSE: I thought this article was very interesting because I am Mormon so it is interesting to see how she talks about the church. I thought some of the things she said were wrong, such as how Mormons are taught to blindly listen because we are taught to ask questions and find answers for things we don’t understand. I thought it was crazy how little the government cared about all the damage that they caused for this family.

Entry 12. “The Empire Fights Back” Chinua Achebe 985-988

SUMMARY: Achebe’s essay, “The Empire Fights Back,” is about his offense of racist depictions of his home and country. Because of this he decides to fight back against these racist views and right books from the nigerian point of view. He discusses the trouble he had to go through to tell these stories.

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE: Achebe’s purpose is to persevere african history and explain how he is trying to do that.

AUTHOR’S AUDIENCE: Chinua Achebe’s audience is Africans. He writes to them to inspire them to retain their culture. He also writes to those not of African descent to teach them about this issue.

TECHNICAL INFORMATION/STYLE ANALYSIS: Some rhetorical strategies used it was cause and effect he says that novel Mister Johnson by Joyce Cary made an impact on whether he decided to become a writer he States three reasons to become a writer one “the overpowering urge to tell a story”, two “that your intimation of a unique story waiting to come out,” and three “the whole project and is worth the considerable trouble.” He also uses rhetorical questions. Chinua Achebe also uses compare and contrast when he talks about Peddler’s Quotes on West Africa

PERSONAL RESPONSE: I thought this article was very interesting because I did not know much about this topic and this article helped me learn more about this issue.

Entry 13. “Rumors, Lies, Innuendo” Mike Twohy 575 How does a cartoon work as argument?

SUMMARY: A man is walking his dog down the street. He looks over and sees three news busses pull up to a building. They say lies, rumors, and innuendo. The reporters from these busses are at the building and are recording and asking questions.

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE: The author’s purpose is to show that news can be rumors lies and innuendos and we should not trust everything we see just because it is on tv. He is trying to persuade the reader to rethink the news. He is also trying to show that our lives can be made better by not focusing on the news like the dog. Because he is not caught up in the news he is able to enjoy the little things in life, like the flowers. The man however is caught up in the news and is not able to fully appreciate the beauty of the flowers.

AUTHOR’S AUDIENCE: The author’s audience is everyday citizens who tend to trust things that they see on tv and do not try and figure out what really happened. He addresses it to them because he wants to change this

TECHNICAL INFORMATION/STYLE ANALYSIS: Mike Twohy uses irony, symbolism and exaggeration to argue that news can be fake. There is also a lot of symbolism going on. The dead tree growing in the background could symbolize how when a person is always caught up in the news they lose hope and “die” like the tree has. The Tree can also be a biblical allusion. In the bible, it says that by their works shall you know them and an evil tree bears no fruit. This can represent how news is evil and does not bear and “good fruits”.

PERSONAL RESPONSE: I really like this cartoon because many people think that everything that they see on television is true. This helps people realize that news can be fake it is there just to spread rumors lies and innuendo and does not tell the full story.

Claim 1: News always does not tell the whole story
Claim 2:News does more good than harm

Entry 14. “Guernica” Pablo Picasso 975
How does a painting work as an argument

SUMMARY: There is a lot of stuff going on in Guernica by Pablo Picasso. There is a black background and many people and animals scattered throughout the painting. On the right side there is a man on fire reaching to the sky. On the left side there is a toro looking directly ahead next to a crying mother with a dead infant in her arms. In the middle there is a light bulb giving off light. On the bottom there is a hand holding a broken sword and above it is a face with a shocked expression.

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE: The Purpose of Guernica is to show the true horrors of war and bring light to the civil war that not many people know about. He does this by the gruesome details in his painting. The painting is off a town after a bombing which took place in 1937.

AUTHOR’S AUDIENCE: The audience is the whole world. Pablo Picasso wants to bring attention to the bombing of Guernica and raise awareness about what is going on.

TECHNICAL INFORMATION/STYLE ANALYSIS: There is a black background and this represents the darkness of war. The people and animals scattered throughout the painting represent the victims of the 1937 bombing at Guernica, this is shown by the man on the right side who is on fire reaching to the sky. On the left side there is a toro looking directly ahead next to a crying mother with a dead infant in her arms who was killed by the bomb. In the middle there is a light bulb giving off light. On the bottom there is a hand holding a broken sword, which represents freedom, and above it is a face with a shocked expression. All of these things show Picasso’s claim that war is wrong.

PERSONAL RESPONSE: This painting is interesting. You can spend lots of time looking at. Another thing that is cool about it is that every person who looks at it can come away with a different conclusion then the last.

Entry 15. “Sonnet to— Science” Edgar Allan Poe 663
How does poetry work as argument?

SUMMARY: Edgar Allan Poe begins his sonnet with praise of science. But the reader soon realizes that it is sarcasm and the things that he is saying are actually damaging. He then compares science to a vulture confirming the readers belief that science is damaging to art. He then alludes to greek mythology.

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE: Edgar Allan Poe’s purpose is to persuade scientists to stop killing imagination and the arts.

AUTHOR’S AUDIENCE: The author’s audience is scientists. Poets and imaginative people already agree with poe and so he addresses it to these scientists in order to convince them that their search to find all knowledge is ruining art.

TECHNICAL INFORMATION/STYLE ANALYSIS: Edgar Allan Poe Uses analogy comparing science to a Vulture “whose wings are dull realities” and “preyest… upon the poet’s heart” He does this in order to prove his claim that science is killing imagination and art. Poe also alludes to greek mythology to show that science is taking away all the excitement and mystery from our lives and is making everything dull.

PERSONAL RESPONSE: I thought that this was really cool. I am a big fan of Edgar Allan Poe and have been to his grave. I really like how he compares science to a vulture that is slowly killing imagination and the poet’s heart.

Entry 16. “Reading at Risk” National Endowments for the Arts 147
How do tables work as argument?

SUMMARY: This is a series of four different graphs that show statistics about reading. The first graph is called “Trends in Book and Literary Reading”. It shows the percentage of the U.S. adult population who has read a book and compares it from 1992 and 2002. The next graph compares the amount of reading done by men and woman. The third graph shows the percentage of literary reading by age and compares this between the years 1982, 1992, and 2002. The final graph shows the correlation between participation in cultural and social activities and the amount of reading done.

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE: The author’s purpose is to inform the United States population that the amount of reading is going down but those who do read have more participation in cultural and social activities. The purpose of this is to convince people that reading has benefits and through this get more people to read books.

AUTHOR’S AUDIENCE: The author’s audience is people who do not read in the united states. It is addressed to this group because the statistics show that those who do read have more participation and so those people who don’t read would want to read more.

TECHNICAL INFORMATION/STYLE ANALYSIS: The main rhetorical device being used here is logos. The author presents many facts such as “Literary Reading by Age”, or “Participation in Cultural and Social Activities” in order to prove its claim.

PERSONAL RESPONSE: These graphs are pretty shocking. I know that reading is a very important thing to do and these show that less and less people are reading and that is pretty scary.

Entry 17. From “Show and Tell” Scott McCloud-graphic essay 737-750
How does this work as an argument?

SUMMARY: Scott McCloud begins this chapter of his book with a young boy at show and tell. In his hands is a transformer toy that changes from a robot to a airplane. Through this Scene McCloud shows that words and pictures can both lead people to the same conclusion. He then discusses how people today think that words and pictures have to be separate in order to be “Truly Great”. He then discusses the different ways in which words and pictures can work together for a common goal. He says that when both pictures and words are supporting each others strengths that it is stronger than each individual.

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE: McClouds purpose is to show that when words and pictures are working together they can accomplish something truly great. He says that many people believe that they have to be separate but explains that they are like ice dance partners. Both partners have different strengths and when they work together they are able to perform better than they could by themself.

AUTHOR’S AUDIENCE: The audience of this graphic novel who think that educated people read books with no pictures and that they need to be separate in order to work.

TECHNICAL INFORMATION/STYLE ANALYSIS: McCloud uses logos to convince the reader to believe his claim. He also uses analogies such as when he talks about how an ice dancer has a partner they are able to work off of each others strengths. This helps the reader understand more fully how they work together.

PERSONAL RESPONSE: I really liked this article. As a child I loved comic books such as Calvin and Hobbes and loved how the words and pictures combined to create hilarious and sometimes moving stories. This chapter is his novel helps explain how Bill Watterson was able to do this.