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B.H.GARDI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY i

(UDP/IDP/FDP) PROJECT REPORT
HEAT TREATMENT ON AISI 1018 TO IMPROVE
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

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By
ARUN NAKUM P. (150040119520)
KETAN NAKUM J. (150040119521)
PIYUSH VADHIYA (150040119024)
BHAVIN GINOYA (150040119004)

Under the guidance of
PROF. MEGHAVI PARMAR
(MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT)

A project report submitted to
Gujarat Technological University in
Partial fulfillment of Requirements of the
Degree of Bachelor of Engineering in
Department of MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

OCTOBER-2018

B.H.GARDI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY i

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that research work embodied in this report entitled
“HEAT TREATMENT ON AISI 1018 TO IMPROVE
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES” Was carried out by ARUN
NAKUM (150040119520), KETAN NAKUM (150040119521), VADHIYA
PIYUSH (150040119024), BHAVIN GINOYA (150040119004) at
B.H.GARDI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY for partial
fulfillment of Bachelor of Engineering degree to awarded by Gujarat
Technological University. This research work has been carried out under my
supervision and is to my satisfaction.

Date: 01/10/2018
Place: Rajkot

Internal guide H.O.D.
Prof. Meghavi Parmar

SIGN: SIGN:

B.H.GARDI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY ii

CANDIDATE DECLARATION
I declare that the dissertation report presented here for Bachelor of
Engineering. (Mechanical) entitled “HEAT TREATMENT ON AISI 1018
TO IMPROVE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES” is my own work
conducted the guidance of Prof. MEGHAVI PARMAR
I future declare that to the best of my knowledge, this dissertation report
does not contain any part of work, which has been submitted for the award
of any degree either in this university or in other university/ demand
university without proper citation.

Signature of Student:

Name of Student: Arun Nakum (150040119520)
Ketan Nakum (150040119521)
Piyush Vadhiya (150040119024)
Bhavin Ginoya (150040119004)

Name of Guide: Prof. Meghavi Parmar
Signature of Guide:

Department of Mechanical Engineering
B.H.GARDI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

B.H.GARDI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It is indeed a pleasure for me to express my sincere gratitude to those who
have always helped me for this dissertation work. First, I am humbly
expressing thanks to my respected guide for this valuable time and constant
help given to me.
I am grateful to Head of Department, Mechanical Engineering Department,
who have always been prepared to offer me help at any time, despite having
busy schedule.
I am thankful to the faculty and the staff of the Mechanical Engineering
Department, BHGCET, who have provided the most cooperative assistance
to me for this work.
Finally, I am thankful to all my friends who have directly or indirectly
helped me during this report work.

DATE: 01/10/2018 NAME & SIGN OF STUDENT:
Arun Nakum:
Ketan Nakum:
Piyush Vadhiya:
Bhavin Ginoya:

B.H.GARDI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY iv

TABLE OF CONTENT
CERTIFICATE……………………………………………………………………………..i
CANDIDATE DECLARATION………………………………………………………….ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT………………………………………………………………..iii
LIST OF FIGURE…………………………………………………………………………v
LIST OF TABLE…………………………………………………………………………vi
ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………..vii
CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………..1
1.1 HISTORY…………………………………………………………………………2
CHAPTER-2 LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………………….4
CHAPTER-3 PROBLEM DEFINATION………………………………………………5
CHAPTER-4 EXPERIMETAL WORK……………………………………………….6
METHODOLOGY…………………………………………………………………..6
CHAPTER-5 FUTURE WORK………………………………………………………………………….12
REFRENCES…………………………………………………………………………..13
APPENDIX- A CANVAS ACTIVITY…………………………………………………………………14
a. AEIOU CANVAS………………………………………………………….14
b. EMPATHY MAPPING CANVAS…………………………………………15
c. IDEATION CANVAS………………………………………………………17
d. PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CANVAS………………………………….18

B.H.GARDI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY v

LIST OF FIGURE

Fig1.1.1 History of heat treatment……………………………………………………………….2
Fig1.1.2 Block diagram……………………………………………………………………………3
Fig3.1 Failure of shaft……………………………………………………………………………..5
Fig4.1 Specimen preparation…………………………………………………………………….6
Fig4.2 Furnace of heat treatment………………………………………………………………..8
Fig4.3 Furnace temperature (annealing)……………………………………………………….8
Fig4.4 Furnace temperature (normalizing)……………………………………………………9
Chart4.1 Sequential chart of Annealing……………………………………………………..…9
Fig4.5 policed specimen…………………………………………………………………………10
Chart4.2 Sequential chart of Normalizing……………………………………………………10
Fig4.6 Microscopic examine in metallurgical microscope…………………………………11
Fig4.7 Microstructure of annealing & normalizing…………………………………………11
Fig A AEIOU canvas…………………………………………………………………..…………11
Fig B Empathy mapping canvas………………………………………………………..………15
Fig C Ideation canvas…………………………………………………………………..…….…17
Fig D Product development canvas……………………………………………………………18

B.H.GARDI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY vi

LIST OF TABLE

Table-1 Properties of material……………………………………………………………………7

B.H.GARDI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY vii

ABSTRACT

AISI 1018 carbon steel is easily available and cheap having all material
properties that are acceptable for many applications. In generally motor shaft we using
low carbon steel such as AISI 1018. In motor sometimes we found the failure of shaft can
be there. And that is depends on the properties of material. It can be lowness of Ductility,
Strength, Toughness and Hardness and etc. so for improve that properties we will do Heat
Treatment on that material. Here basically we do experiment on Annealing to produce
homogenizing the structure, Normalizing to produce harder and stronger steel, Case
hardening (carburizing) to improve external strength of shaft, also an Austempering to
improve ductile nature of the material is done to get improved properties of the shaft
material, which has extensive use in industrial and scientific field.

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CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION

As we know there is a little bit of steel in everybody life. Steel has many practical
applications in every aspect of life. Steel with favorable properties are the best among the
goods. The steel is being divided as low carbon steel, high carbon steel on the basis of
carbon content.
Low carbon steel has carbon content of 0.15% to 0.45%. Low carbon steel is the most
common form of steel as it’s provides that are acceptable for many applications like an
AISI 1018. It is neither externally brittle nor ductile due to its lower carbon content. It has
lower tensile strength and malleable. Steel with lower carbon steel has properties similar
to iron. As the carbon content increase, the metal become harder and stronger but less
ductile and more difficult to weld.
The process het treatment is carry out first by heating the metal and then cooling it in
water, oil, and brine water solution. The purpose of Heat treatment is to soften the metal,
to change the grain size, to modify the structure of the material and relieve the stress set
up in the material. The various heat treatment processes are Annealing, Normalizing,
Case hardening, Austempering, and etc.
Annealing, primarily is the process of heating a metal which is in a metastable or
distorted structural state, to a temperature which will remove the instability or distortion
and then cooling is (usually at a slow rate), the purpose of annealing for stable structure,
improve machinability.
Normalizing or air quenching consist in heating steel to about 40 to 50oC above it’s
upper critical temperature, the purpose of normalizing to produce uniform structure,
required strength and ductility in a steel and produce a harder and stronger than full
annealing.
Case hardening is the process of hardening the surface of metal, often low carbon steel by
infusing elements into the metal surface forming a hard, wear resistance skin but
preserving a though and ductile applied to motor shaft, hydraulic shaft, bolts, gears, and
etc.
Austempering is interrupted quenching, that forms bainite, In general steels treated thus
are tougher and more ductile than steel of tempered martensite having equal hardness and
tensile strength, the purpose of austempering for great ductility and toughness (impact
strength) along with high hardness.

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As my project concern to do it is basically concentrate on four processes, which is
Annealing, Normalizing, Case hardening and Austempering to improve mechanical
properties of shaft AISI 1018 steel.

1.1 HISTORY

Fig1.1.1 History of heat treatment

The classical alloy for heat treatment is, of course medium and high carbon steel.
And from the time discovery, steel has been regularly subjected to heat treatment of one
from over another. The histories of the swordsmiths and cutlers trades make it very clear
that precise method of hardening of steel, by plunging the solid red-hot steel into water
(thus producing martensite), and its toughening, by tempering the quenched-hardened
steel at the moderate temperature, have been know empirically and use for thousands of
years.
Even the antique literary book, “the odyssey of homer” finds description such as “Just as
a smith plunges into cold water some great axe-head or edge and it hisses angrily-for
that is the treatment, and the strength of iron lies in its temperature”.

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Fig1.1.2 Block diagram

Material (AISI 1018)
Heat Treatment
Annealing Normalizing Case-hardening Austempering
Test properties

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CHAPTER-2 LITERATURE SURVEY

Sanjib kumar jaypuria (Bachelor of Technology (Mechanical Engineering), 2008),
heat treatment on low carbon steel By referring this research paper we have know about
heat treatment on low carbon steel, More is the tempering temperature, less is the
hardness or more is the softness (ductility) induced in the quenched specimen. (ductility)
induced in the methodology quenched specimen. Case depth can be increased by longer
cycle of carburization. Case depth can be increased exponentially by increasing
carburization temperature.
MK Banerji (Malaviya national institute of technology, jaipur, 2017), heat treatment
of commercial steel for engineering application by referring this research paper we
know about application of material in engineered used, and also heat treatment on the
base of carbon, normalizing and annealing process preceding the machining machining
operation. Also post-weld stress relieving may be required before hardening and
tempering. Polymer quenching such as glycol-based quenchant is used in preference to
oil because, it is higher flexibility in adjusting cooling rate and it does not easily catch the
fire as oil does.
Sandra Ebner, Clemens Suppan, Ronald Schnitzer, Christina Hofer (Materials
Science & Engineering, 2018) Microstructure and mechanical properties of a low C
steel subjected to bainitic or quenching and partitioning heat treatments by referring
this research paper we have learned about microstructures and mechanical properties of
the material. steels subjected to Q&P heat treatments show higher local form- ability,
while those subjected to TBF heat treatments are superior regarding global formability.
Sayed Ghafar Hashemi, B. Eghbali(Material Science & Engineering, 2017)
Evolution of High Strength and Ductile Ultrafine grained Dual Phase Superferrite
Low Carbon V- Nb-Mo Steel by referring this research paper we know about
strengthening in material. A superferrite/martensite microstructure achieved via
thermomechanical processing in low carbon steel. An enhanced combination of strength
and strain hardening obtained in the processed UFG DP steel, compared to the tensile
properties of UFG DP steels reported in the literature. More, the processed UFG dual
phase steel exhibited extensive rapid strain hardening in spite of a UFG structure.
Jayoung Koo; Gareth Thomas (United states patent, 1978) high strength, high
ductile, low carbon steel by referring tis patent we know about strength and ductility in
the material. invention to provide a high strength low carbon steel having a controlled
marten site-ferrite microstructure, which in turn offers a wide range of strength and
ductility combinations

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CHAPTER-3 PROBLEM DEFINTION

Now a day we seen many types of motor are available in the market, and many kind of
failure is happening in the motor shaft, generally it is depend on its material. And also
how it’s working condition? But shaft can also be failed by is surface roughness or low
ductile nature as well as low strength and hardness. so mainly its depends on the
properties of material. We can’t change the material but increase it’s properties.

Fig.3.1 failure of shaft

B.H.GARDI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ; TECHNOLOGY 6

CHAPTER-4 EXPERIMENTAL WORK

METHDOLOGY

The experimental procedure of for the project work is listed as;
1. Properties before experiments
2. Specimen preparation
3. Heat treatment
i. Annealing
ii. Normalizing
4. Microstructure study

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1. Properties before experiment

The properties of the material are very important aspect in every engineering
field. In metallurgical field all the material are depends on its properties. And it
can depend on its microstructure. And also how much percentage of pure metal
and alloy. So the material is very important aspect in every engineering field.

Chemical composition:-
Carbon, C 0.14 – 0.20 %
Iron, Fe 98.81 – 99.26 % (as remainder)
Manganese, Mn 0.60 – 0.90 %
Phosphorous, P ? 0.040 %
Sulfur, S ? 0.050 %
Physical properties:-
Density 7.87 g/cc
Mechanical properties:-
Hardness, Brinell 126
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 440Mpa
Tensile Strength, Yield 370Mpa
Elongation at Break (In 50 mm) 40%
Reduction of Are 205Gpa
Modulus of Elasticity (Typical for steel) 140Gpa
Bulk Modulus (Typical for steel) 15%
Poissons Ratio (Typical For Steel) 0.290
Machinability 70%
Shear Modulus (Typical for steel) 80Gpa
Table-1 Properties of material

2. Specimen preparation

The first and foremost job for the experiment is the specimen preparation. The
specimen size should be compatible to the machine specifications:
We got the sample from Mild steel trader. The sample that we got is mild steel.
AISI 1018 is one of the American standard specification of the mild steel. And so
it has moderate hardness, and moderate ductility and medium strength. We have
take 19mm*19mm square bar and it is 10mm long specimen. Also we have done
phasing operation on both side of the specimen.

B.H.GARDI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ; TECHNOLOGY 8

Fig. 4.1 specimen preparation

3. Heat treatment

Fig.4.2 furnace of heat treatment

Heat treatment is define as the, an operation or combination of operation
involving heating and cooling of metal / alloy in solid state to obtain desirable
results. Heat treatment process is carried out in order to harden and strengthen
metals, improve machinability, change grain size, improve ductility and
toughness, increase heat, wear, and corrosion resistance of material. we are using
muffle furnace for doing this treatment and another fig shows the temperature
detector, there are metallurgical microscope used for seeing the microstructure.

i. Annealing

Annealing is the process of heating a metal which is in a metastable or
distorted structural state, to a temperature which will remove the
instability or distortion then cooling (usually at a slow rate).
In annealing, first we have done sample preparation. After that we have
put material in furnace for heating. The furnace used in experiment is
muffle furnace. The heating temperature of furnace was maintained at
905oC. After heating the specimen hold 45minutes at 905oC in the furnace.
And then we stop the furnace heating. And remain specimen for cool

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down in furnace only. The cooling time is taken 3:30hr. Then we have
take sample outside from the furnace. We get result as shown below;

Fig.4.3 Furnace temperature (annealing)

Chart.4.1 sequential chart of annealing
ii. Normalizing

Normalizing or air quenching consist in heating steel to about 40 to 50oC
above it’s upper critical temperature.
In normalizing, first we have done sample preparation. After that we have
put material in furnace for heating. The furnace used in experiment is
muffle furnace. The heating temperature of furnace was maintained at
871oC. After heating the specimen hold 45minutes at 871oC in the furnace.
And then we stop the furnace heating. And remain specimen for cool
down in atmospheric air. The cooling time is taken 1hr. We get result as
shown below;

0
200
400
600
800
1000
0123456
Temperature (in oC)
Temperature (in
oC)

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Fig.4.4 Furnace temperature (normalizing)

Chart 4.2 sequential chart of normalizing
4. Microstructure study

The microstructure study is very important role in any kind of heat treatment. On
the base of microstructure we found the percentage of carbon and other things.
And also on the base of that we can find mechanical properties. In testing the
microstructure we have used a metallurgical microscope. The metallurgical
microscope is generally used in every field.
For the finding a microstructure we have to police the one side of specimen in
policing machine, after that prepare a specimen with etching. The etching agent is
used in this experiment is Nitric acid (N2O). While etching proper amount of
nitric acid (N2O) is put on the specimen. After that we see microstructure in
microscope.
0
200
400
600
800
1000
01234
Temperature (in oC)
temperature (in
oC)

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Fig.4.5 policed specimen

Fig.4.6 microscopic examine in metallurgical microscope

Fig.4.7 microstructure of Annealing and Normalizing

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CHAPTER-5 FUTURE WORK

As we have seen two heat treatment processes like annealing and normalizing. We have
done annealing and normalizing to get microstructure in metallurgical microstructure. In
future we will find the properties of annealed and normalized steel which we have done
treatment. And also heat treatment on other two processes, that is a carburizing (case
hardening) and austempering. And find its microstructure and improvements in their
properties. At last we will check the improvement in properties which will change. And
compare it with old properties.

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REFERENCES

1. Sanjib kumar jaypuria. heat treatment on low carbon steel, Bachelor of
Technology (Mechanical Engineering), 2008
2. MK Banerji. heat treatment of commercial steel for engineering application,
Malaviya national institute of technology, jaipur, 2017
3. Sandra Ebner, Clemens Suppan, Ronald Schnitzer, Christina Hofer.
Microstructure and mechanical properties of a low C steel subjected to bainitic or
quenching and partitioning heat treatments, Materials Science & Engineering,
2018
4. Sayed Ghafar Hashemi, B. Eghbali. Evolution of High Strength and Ductile
Ultrafine grained Dual Phase Superferrite Low Carbon V- Nb-Mo Steel, Material
Science & Engineering, 2017
5. Jayoung Koo; Gareth Thomas. high strength, high ductile, low carbon steel,
United states patent, 1978
6. Abrasive wear behavior of different case depth gas carburized AISI 8620 steel.
M.I zcher,M.Tabur,turkey university

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APPENDIX- A CANVAS ACTIVITY

AEIOU Canvas sheet

Fig. A. AEIOUE Canvas sheet
• Activity
? Heat treatment
? Test microstructure
? Test mechanical properties
? Increase /Decrease properties
• Environment
? Corrosion
? Chang in microstructure
? Temperature effect
• Interaction
? Better hardness
? More ductile
? Soft surface roughness
? Increase weld ability
? Less temperature effect
• Objects

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? Muffle furnace
? Meteorological microscope
? Case hardening furnace
? Impact testing machine
? UTM
? Hardness tester
• User
? Steam pipes
? Car shaft body
? Bolt
? Nuts
? Tubes
? Galvanized plate

Empathy Mapping Canvas

Figure .B. Empathy mapping canvas

• User
? Material suppliers
? Motor shaft
? Car body
• Activity

B.H.GARDI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY 16

? Heat treatment
? Test microstructure
? Test mechanical properties
? Increase /decrease properties
Happy story
(1) I want in the industry I don’t know about the design of sheet metal and equipment but
we select this project and go to that industry. We understand about the designing and in
the industry peoples are also helpful to learn about the designing of the sheet metal
requirements. Now we all know details about the sheet metal design.
(2) We want in the industry to collect about information of the raw material ; its
purpose. To know about how to decide which material to be used, which type of
parameters are affected and where it is to buy. So it is good for us to details of the
product purchase ; its importance are getting.

Sad story
(1) Once I going in way, I am seeing the one man have motor, but there are not
working condition. They have failure of shaft in the motor. At that time I fill
very sad.
(2) When I am doing this project, I don’t found any calculation in the project at that
time I fill very sad.

Ideation canvas

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Figure .c ideation canvas

• People
? Material suppliers
? Automobile
? Industrial people
• Activity
? Heat treatment
? Test microstructure
? Test mechanical properties
? Increase /decrease
• Situation /location/contact
? Monsoon
? Corrosion
? Heating
? Summer
? Winter
? Colding

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• Probes /possible solution
? More hardness
? More strength
? High ductile
? Reduce time
? Long life
? High accuracy
? Reduce corrosion
? Comfortable work
? High machinibility
? Reduce defect

Product development canvas

Figure .d. product development canvas

• Purpose

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? Increase ductility
? Increase hardness
? Increase machinibility
• People
? Material suppliers
? Automobile work shop
? Industrial people
• Product experience
? Cost
? Manual work
? Changing mechanical properties
• Production future
? Better hardness
? High ductility
? Reduce defect
? Comfortable properties
• Product function
? Improve mechanical properties
? Reduce defect
? Improve machinabilty
• Components
? Power source
? Muffle furnace
? Metallurgical microscope
? Impact testing
• Customer revalidation
? Good strength
? Low cost.
? High accuracy
? No defect
? More ductile