Caribbean Studies Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examinations School Based Assessment Title of Study

Caribbean Studies
Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examinations
School Based Assessment
Title of Study:
“Are Students At The St. Michael School Being Encouraged To Be Involved In Entrepreneurial Activities?”

CANDIDATE NAME:  VICTOR CLARKE
CANDIDATE NUMBER:  0300300
NAME OF SCHOOL: The St. Michael School
SCHOOL CODE: 030030
NAME OF TEACHER:  Ms. Doyle
YEAR OF EXAMINATION: 2018

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Table of Contents
Page #
Introduction & Purpose of Research 1
Literature Review 3
Data Collection Sources 6
Presentation of Data 8
Analysis of Data10
Discussion of Findings14
Conclusions, Limitation and Recommendations21
Bibliography22
INTRODUCTION & PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
Entrepreneurial development has become very significant and it also plays a major role in Caribbean islands. It is one of the key elements of economic development. Entrepreneurs can change the way persons see the world and their innovations can improve the standard of living within a country (S. Shobhit, 2015). Entrepreneurial development leads to industrial development, regional growth, employment generation, it contributes to the national well-being and it also satisfies basic human needs. In addition, it creates the conditions for a prosperous society; encouraging entrepreneurial activities would be beneficial since it plays a major role in society and economic development (S D. Sarasvathy, 2004)
The title of this study is “Are students at The St. Michael School being encouraged to be involved in entrepreneurial activities?” The St. Michael School which is located in St. Michael, Barbados comprises of 900 students and 39 teachers. The study will ask if there are activities which promote entrepreneurial development in the school, if students would like to have entrepreneurial development activities and the benefits they believe entrepreneurial activities would have on them and on society as a whole.
There are many persons that will be able to benefit from this research since it has significant educational value. The entrepreneurship students, students that are interested in entrepreneurial activities and students who are contemplating or indecisive about entrepreneurship would be able to benefit from my research. In that, they would be able to understand the purpose of entrepreneurship and how it helps you to think outside of the box and how it nurtures unconventional talents. The business management team would also be able to use the information to determine if they need to implement entrepreneurial activities at the school if there is a demand.

DEFINITIONS of Technical Terms
Entrepreneurial development – This refers to the process of enhancing entrepreneurial skills and knowledge through structured training and institution-building programmes (Kathiravan Gopolan, 2010).
Entrepreneurship – This is the capacity and willingness to develop, organize and manage a business venture along with any of its risks in order to make a profit (R. Corny, 2013).

Literature Review
According to the article “More Steve Jobs, Jobs” published in The New York Times (2010, January 10th) entrepreneurial education allows students from all socioeconomic backgrounds the opportunity to think outside the box and nurture their unconventional skills. Furthermore, it creates opportunity, ensures social justice, instils confidence and stimulates the economy. Entrepreneurship is the act of identifying an opportunity and a need for a product or service, grasping and pursuing that opportunity with the aim of making a profit (Douglas Harper, 2010).

Discipline, creative problem solving, leadership abilities, effective teamwork and the ability to adapt in an ever changing environment are some of the many skills students can develop once they are encouraged to be involved in entrepreneurial activities and many schools have now realized this. Those skills are the cornerstones of entrepreneurial education which prepares a student to solve challenges and discover opportunities. According to the article “Why It’s Imperative to Teach Entrepreneurship” published in the Medium (2015, August 21st), along with teaching subjects such as history and science which provide foundational knowledge, it is important that students are taught to be entrepreneurial and are encouraged to take on entrepreneurial activities. Many schools have integrated it into their curriculum now because they have realized that it gives students the opportunity to develop creative solutions to problems they encounter, it allows them to see problems in a different way to discover new ideas and it allows them to scale ideas which inspire innovations.
According to the article “Reasons to Encourage Entrepreneurial Activities” posted in the Tech Startup News, Events and Resources (2015, May 9th) schools are now encouraging entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial activities. They have realized that they will help students develop a free-thinking mindset which will aid in increasing their self-confidence in their ideas and abilities. Schools have also realize the importance of encouraging entrepreneurship among the students since the entrepreneurial process is demanding and uncertain. The entrepreneurial activities will provide the students with a real life situation and problem to identify. Entrepreneurship needs to be integrated into schools more, it will help form entrepreneurial principles in students’ lives, it will shape the outcome of their efforts towards earning money, knowing the expenses of running the day to day operations of a business and discovering the importance of goal setting. Many schools are now realizing the importance of entrepreneurship in our society and also in our economy. By encouraging entrepreneurial activities in schools, students would be able to learn about being financially literate, the ability to recognize opportunities and also know when to take risks in the short term to have a greater gain in the long term. They are many benefits to the students if schools encourage it and have it in their curriculum. Learning about entrepreneurship and being involved in entrepreneurial activities also will help instill good social values in students; they would be able to learn about good citizenship, being humble, helping others and also learn how to be involved with the community while still being able to operate a business.
According to the article “Why Should Entrepreneurship Be Encouraged in Schools” posted in Forbes Magazine (2016, April 5th) schools need to do more to encourage entrepreneurship since we live in a world where the future is uncertain and students will need the skills to discover their own paths. The job market and economy are unpredictable therefore equipping students with the entrepreneurial development will allow them to chart their own paths. Schools need to give students the opportunity to participate in entrepreneurial activities which will allow them to take risks and think creatively. By encouraging entrepreneurial activities students will learn how to accept and learn from failures and will come to understanding the interconnection between working hard and succeeding. Schools need to give students more opportunities for creativity and innovation, entrepreneurial activities and entrepreneurial education not only encourages but it allows students to be more creative and collaborative with others which in turn will aid with their teamwork abilities which can also help with other subject areas.
Therefore, it can be summated that encouraging entrepreneurship and students in entrepreneurial activities creates great value. It can be seen that it serves as an incubator for creative, innovative and collaborative ideas that will assist and guide students along their paths.
Data Collection Sources
In order to complete this research, both primary and secondary sources were used.

Primary Sources
The method used to collect the primary data was the use of questionnaires. A questionnaire is a set of printed or written questions with a choice of answers, devised for the purposes of a survey or statistical study (Key, 2013). Probability sampling was used to carry out this research; it involved selecting a sample from a population based on the principle of random chance. The St. Michael School has a population of 832 students but the sample comprised of 60 students, 10 were randomly selected from each year group to effectively carry out the research. The questionnaire consisted of 3 open ended questions and 12 closed ended questions. The questionnaire provided the researcher with first hand information about the study being done, it provided current and specific information that gave a better assessment of the research.

The data obtained from this research provided an analysis of a quantitative approach. Quantitative Research is way of generating numerical data or measureable data such as questionnaires that can be transformed into useable statistics to formulate facts and uncover patterns in research (Daniel, 2010). Quantitative research was used to collate and place data into the form of charts and graphs to determine the relationship between the different variables and to project the comparisons of the data collected.

Secondary Sources
A secondary data source is where previously used data is gathered to be used in current research. The secondary method included the use of online sources such as articles. The secondary data provided a wide variety of both information and examples which solidified the information that was collected from primary sources. The secondary information also provided the researcher
Data Collection Sources Cont’d
with the exact information they were looking for in order to carry out the study, it provided definitions, reasons why entrepreneurial activities should be encouraged in schools, the benefits the entrepreneurial activities can provide both to the student and their country and the opportunities that can be developed from those entrepreneurial activities. The secondary information also provided the researcher with the opportunity to compare their research to already existing research on the topic being studied.
Both primary and secondary research aided in the gathering of information for this internal assessment and they will also help the reader to gain a fundamental understanding of the topic being studied. The sources contributed immensely to the understanding of the area being investigated. They showed the importance of entrepreneurship in schools, why schools should encourage students to be more involved in entrepreneurial activities and the value of entrepreneurship in students’ lives.

Questionnaire
My name is Victor Clarke and I am a Caribbean Studies student conducting research on whether students are encouraged to be involved in entrepreneurial activities at The St. Michael School. I would appreciate you taking your time to respond to this questionnaire. All information will remain confidential. Please answer all questions. Place a tick in the box next to the answer of your choice, or write in the space provided when available? ?to? ?identify? ?you? ?answer.
1. What form are you currently in?
FORMCHECKBOX 1st FORMCHECKBOX 2nd FORMCHECKBOX 3rd FORMCHECKBOX 4th FORMCHECKBOX 5th FORMCHECKBOX 6th
2. Do you study a business subject?
FORMCHECKBOX Yes FORMCHECKBOX No
3. Were you introduced to entrepreneurship through your business subject?
FORMCHECKBOX Yes FORMCHECKBOX No
4. Do you think learning about entrepreneurship is important?
FORMCHECKBOX Yes FORMCHECKBOX No
5. Do you believe it is important for students to be able to participate in entrepreneurial
activities?
FORMCHECKBOX Yes FORMCHECKBOX No
6. If you answer to Question 5 was ‘Yes’ please state why you chose that option.

17145021272500
17145024511000
7. Do you believe entrepreneurial activities are encouraged at The St. Michael School?
FORMCHECKBOX Yes FORMCHECKBOX No
8. Are you involved in any entrepreneurial activities at The St. Michael School?
FORMCHECKBOX Strongly Agree FORMCHECKBOX Agree FORMCHECKBOX Strongly Disagree FORMCHECKBOX Disagree FORMCHECKBOX Neutral
9. If your answer to Question 8 was ‘Yes’ please specify below.

5715019431000
10. Have your teachers spoken to you about entrepreneurship?
FORMCHECKBOX Yes FORMCHECKBOX No
11. Where are you most influenced by entrepreneurial activities?
FORMCHECKBOX Home FORMCHECKBOX School FORMCHECKBOX Internet FORMCHECKBOX Church FORMCHECKBOX Other
12. If your answer to Question 13 was ‘Other’ please specify below.

21907516954500
13. Do you watch television shows about entrepreneurship?
FORMCHECKBOX Yes FORMCHECKBOX No
14. Do you believe the government is doing enough to encourage entrepreneurial activities?
FORMCHECKBOX Strongly Agree FORMCHECKBOX Agree FORMCHECKBOX Strongly Disagree FORMCHECKBOX Disagree FORMCHECKBOX Neutral
15. Do you believe you can be an entrepreneur?
FORMCHECKBOX Yes FORMCHECKBOX No
Presentation of Data

In figure 1, it shows the number of persons in the six forms who were introduced to entrepreneurship through a business subject. Five students in 6th form, five in 5th form, four in 4th form, three in 3rd form, zero in 2nd form and zero in first form.

In figure 2, it shows that 27 persons’ response was ‘Yes” and 3 persons’ response was ‘No’ to if participating in entrepreneurial activities is important.
0350520Presentation of Data
In figure 3, it shows the number of responses to whether entrepreneurial activities are encouraged at The St. Michael School. Eighteen students strongly agreed, seven agreed, five disagreed, zero strongly disagreed and zero of them were neutral.

Figure 4 shows that 25 persons’ response was ‘Yes’ and 5 persons’ response was ‘No’ to their involvement in any entrepreneurial activities at The St. Michael School.
Presentation of Data

Figure 5 shows that 16 persons were spoken to by teacher about entrepreneurship while 14 persons were not.

Figure 6 shows the choices and total of persons who are influenced by entrepreneurial activities at The St. Michael School. Seven students are influenced at home, twelve at school, eleven on the internet, zero at church and zero students chose ‘Other.’
Presentation of Data

In figure 7, it shows students’ response to if the government is doing enough to encourage entrepreneurial activities in the country. Zero students strongly agreed, five agreed, twenty disagreed, five strongly disagreed and zero were neutral.
In figure 8, it can be seen that 23 students believe that they can be an entrepreneur while 7 out of the 30 do not.
Analysis of Data
In figure 1, it can be seen that 0 persons in first and second form were introduced to entrepreneurship through a business subject. While in third form 3 (18%), fourth form 4 (24%), fifth form 5 (30%) and in sixth form 5 (30%) of the represented sample were introduced to entrepreneurship through a business subject. This can be broken down between the lower school and upper school, 3 out of the 15 lower school students were introduced to it compared to 14 out of 15 persons in upper school. In the first 2 years of school students are not introduced to business subjects or entrepreneurship since it is not in their syllabus however, from third form and up business studies are then incorporated into their subjects. Due to the believed simplicity of the business subjects they are not incorporated into the lower school syllabus since it can be completed in time in the upper school. There is a traditional system as it relates to education where schools focus on science and maths and in the upper school they then tend to give students the opportunity to choose which field they want to go in and this is where they are introduced to business subjects.
In figure 2, 27 (90%) of students believe that participating in entrepreneurial activities is important while 3 (10%) of students believe that it is not. Those 90% of students understand the usefulness of entrepreneurial activities and how it can have an impact on them. The 90% of students gave a definition of entrepreneurship while the 10% of students left the question out. A few examples of the definitions the students gave were “Entrepreneurship is the process of starting a new venture” and” Entrepreneurship is owning and managing your own business.” This means that the 27 students understand what entrepreneurship is therefore they would know the importance of entrepreneurial activities while the 3 students may not know much of entrepreneurship therefore, knowing the importance of such activities.
Figure 3 shows the students’ response towards entrepreneurial activities being encouraged at The St. Michael School. 18 (60%) of the students strongly agreed, 7 (23.33%) agreed, 5 (16.67%) disagreed, 0 students strongly disagreed and 0 students were neutral towards entrepreneurial activities being encouraged at The St. Michael School. Students also stated that a delivery service, $20 challenge and entrepreneurship club are entrepreneurial activities at The St. Michael School which means that they are given the opportunity to express their entrepreneurial talent. They are given the chance to be creative and innovative in their own way. The 10 students who disagreed to entrepreneurial activities not being encouraged may not be aware of them or they may not be aware that they are entrepreneurial activities.
In figure 4 it can be seen that 25 (83.33%) students participate in entrepreneurial activities while 5 (16.67%) do not. The 25 students may be the ones who participate in the delivery service or even the ones who sell fishcakes at lunch time at The St. Michael School. Those students may also be participating in the $20 challenge where they would have to create their own business venture. Therefore, the students are finding interest in participating in entrepreneurial activities at The St. Michael School, they more than likely recognize the benefits from their teachers, entrepreneurship club or any other activities which are developing them in being entrepreneurs.
Figure 5 shows that 17 (56.67%) of students are taught about entrepreneurship while 13 (43.33%) students are not. If the school intends to promote entrepreneurial thinking, teachers would need to play an integral role in doing so. Those 13 students do not study a business subject therefore their teachers may not have spoken to them about entrepreneurship since it does not relate to their matter of study. Therefore, the teachers wouldn’t need to speak to the students about entrepreneurship since it will not be in accordance with what they are supposed to teach. While the other 17 students do study a business subject so their teachers may have spoken to them about it since it is in their curriculum. Therefore, those students would be more exposed to entrepreneurship through their teacher since they will have to learn about it.
Figure 6 shows where students are most influenced by entrepreneurial activities. 12 (40%) of students are influenced by entrepreneurial activities at school 11 (36.67%) on the internet and 7 (23.33%) at home. Students are mostly influenced at school which means they participate in entrepreneurial activities, learn about entrepreneurship through their business subject or is impacted by entrepreneurship in some way at the school. Although it is the place which influences students the most it is not the only place. Students are also learning about entrepreneurship on the internet and at home which means that although school isn’t the number one place for them they are still being exposed to entrepreneurship elsewhere.

In figure 7, five (16.67%) students strongly agreed that the government is doing enough to encourage entrepreneurial activities, 5 (16.67%) students strongly disagreed and 20 (66.67%) disagreed. According to the represented sample, most of the students believe that the government is not doing enough to encourage or promote entrepreneurial activities. This may be because they are not aware of the ways in which the government is encouraging activities, in their eyes the government is not doing anything at all or they may not be taught the ways in which the government is promoting entrepreneurial activities. Therefore, they would believe that the government is not doing enough. It can also be assumed that the 20 students who disagreed may also not participate in any entrepreneurial activities at The St. Michael School therefore; they would not know the impact of government policies on a business venture.

Figure 8 shows that 23 (76.67%) of students believe that they can be an entrepreneur while 7 (23.33%) students do not. This shows students’ ability to participate in entrepreneurial activities. Those 23 students more than likely participate in entrepreneurial activities at The St. Michael School or the occupation they would like to undertake in the future deals with being an entrepreneurial individual. The 23 students may realize the rewards of being an entrepreneur or is impacted by entrepreneurship in some way which may influence them in believing they can be an entrepreneur. The other 7 students may not want to be entrepreneurs in the future, they might want to undertake another occupation, they may not be taught entrepreneurship or even participate in any entrepreneurial activities at The St. Michael School therefore they may not be encouraged in any way to be an entrepreneur. They may have even realized the risks, hardships and dedication needed to be an entrepreneur and do not believe it is an occupation they would be able to undertake.
In conclusion, analysing if students can define entrepreneurship, if they participate in entrepreneurial activities, if they are taught about entrepreneurship and if they believe they can become an entrepreneur are all key factors in determining if entrepreneurial activities are encouraged at The St. Michael School.

Discussion of Findings
The purpose of this research was to discover if The St. Michael School was encouraging students to be involved in entrepreneurial activities. After interpreting the presented data, it can be seen that many students understand the importance of entrepreneurship and also believe that entrepreneurial activities are encouraged at the school. The analysis of research identified where students are mostly influenced by entrepreneurial activities, whether their teachers are speaking to them about entrepreneurship and if they participate in any entrepreneurial activities at the school.
According to the article “Why It’s Imperative to Teach Entrepreneurship” published in the Medium (2015, August 21st) schools are focusing more on the foundational subjects such as sciences and history and not incorporating the business subjects. In the lower school at The St. Michael School which consists of 1st and 2nd formers business subjects are not taught which means those students would not be exposed to entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial development. They are taught subjects such as social studies and integrated science and not any of the business subjects. Students don’t have the choice of deciding whether they want to do business subjects in 1st and 2nd form and therefore they may not be encouraged to be involved in entrepreneurial activities in such years.
Subsequently, the article “Reasons to Encourage Entrepreneurial Activities” posted in the Tech Startup News, Events and Resources (2015, May 9th) stated that having teachers speak to students about entrepreneurship will not only encourage them to participate in entrepreneurial activities but it will help instil good social values in students and they would also be able to learn about good citizenship. 17 students out of the 30 have been taught by their teachers about entrepreneurship which means that they are preparing students for college and also their career. By speaking to them they are teaching them entrepreneurial skills such as creative problem solving and collaborations which are key elements important for academic success.
Moreover, “Why Should Entrepreneurship Be Encouraged in Schools” posted in Forbes Magazine (2016, April 5th) stated that schools should give students the opportunity to participate in entrepreneurial activities which will allow them to take risks and think creatively. They would understand the interconnection between working hard and succeeding and also learn to be creative and innovative. The representative sample has stated that entrepreneurial activities such as a delivery service and $20 challenge are encouraged at The St. Michael School. Therefore, they are preparing students to identify and address challenges and opportunities. They will develop leadership abilities, experience working on effective teams, and adaptability in an ever-changing environment.

According to the article “Students Who Want To Become Entrepreneurs” posted in Young Upstarts (2017, December 18th) more and more high school and college students are looking at opportunities, planning and scheming on how to become entrepreneurs. The idea of their future, managing their finances and doing the work they love is inspiring students to pursue entrepreneurship in this current era. Children who once wanted to grow up to be doctors and lawyers now want to be entrepreneurs to change the world with their creative and innovate products and services. 23 out of the 30 students believe they can become an entrepreneur. They have realized the benefits of being an entrepreneur which include being your own boss, setting your own working hours and the ability to reap all profits. Those 23 students may participate in entrepreneurial activities or run a current business at The St. Michael School and want to operate that business after school thus the idea of becoming an entrepreneur.
In conclusion, the findings which included why students want to become entrepreneurs, if entrepreneurship is encouraged, if students are taught entrepreneurship and the reasons to encourage entrepreneurship were examined and also compared with various research.

Conclusion, Limitations of Research & Recommendations
In conclusion, the topic “Are students at The St. Michael School being encouraged to participate in entrepreneurial activities?” was examined and explained. The study consisted of information such as the importance of entrepreneurship, whether students participate in entrepreneurial activities and where students are most influenced by entrepreneurial activities. The distribution of the questionnaires raised awareness about entrepreneurial activities at The St. Michael School and also made students contemplate whether they are entrepreneurial activities.

Limitations
The limitations of this study were, it was challenging to find information that corresponded with data in the research and some of the questionnaires were not returned which hindered the gathering of information.  

Recommendations
The St. Michael School should incorporate business subjects in 1st and 2nd form to give those students the opportunity to learn about entrepreneurship.

Entrepreneurial activities should be promoted more in the school so students would be aware of them.
Teachers should inform the students about the government policies that are in place which encourage entrepreneurial activities.

Teachers who teach sciences and other foundational subjects should also inform their students of entrepreneurship since they can use those skills they develop in other subjects.
Bibliography
Bibliography
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Edwards, G. (2015 ). Reasons To Encourage Entrepreneurial Activities. Tech Startup News, Events and Resources .

Friedman, T. L. (2010 ). More Steve Jobs, Jobs. The New York Times.

Kathiravan, G. (2010). Entrepreneurship Development . Retrieved from Scribd: https://www.scribd.com/document/278491349/Entrepreneurship-Development
Key, J. P. (2013). Research Design in Occupational Design. Retrieved from Data Tools: https://www.okstate.edu/ag/agedcm4h/academic/aged5980a/5980/newpage16.htm
Sarasvathy, S. D. (2004). Entrepreneurship Development . Retrieved from Early To Rise: https://www.earlytorise.com/entrepreneurship-development/
Seelig, T. (2015). Why It’s Imperative To Teach Entrepreneurship. Medium.

Shobbit, S. (2015, June 22). What Is Entrepreneurship? Retrieved from Business News Daily: https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/2642-entrepreneurship.html