CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This study is aimed to assess urban water supply and distribution problems in Sodo town. Particularly, to identify the coverage of water supply and distribution, challenges to water supply and distribution, the coordination and participation of stakeholders in water supply distribution schemes and effects water supply shortages in the study area. The study indicates the current water supply condition of urban settlement based on investigating the coverage and distribution of water, causes of water inaccessibility and their impacts on the urban situation. It provides insight to policy makers, NGOs, CBOs and stakeholders who are concerned with urban water supply and distribution problems. It would also serve as a base line for other researchers who will be interested in the area.
The investigator used descriptive survey research design to achieve the study because it is suitable to describe the degree and nature of urban water supply and distribution problems encountered in the study area. Hence, the study was employed both quantitative and qualitative research approach of data collection and analysis to keep its validity and reliability. For the qualitative data collection methods such as filed observation and document analysis was used. The required qualitative data was collected from 12 purposely selected key-informants in depth interview from three offices. The quantitative data was gathered from 147 randomly selected survey respondents using random sampling techniques. Moreover, observation were hold in the overall process of field work to substantiate data obtain from other research methods. The investigator used the following data gathering instruments like: questionnaire, semi- structured interview and observation.
Concerning the satisfaction at the existing condition of water supply service 59 (40.1%) of the respondents indicated satisfaction with the provision and 88 (59.9%) of respondents have not been satisfied with the situation of water supply and distribution due to shortage, unsafe for human consumption, per unit cost of water supply is high and water interruptions. Concerning to challenges of water supply and distribution the study indicated that lack of community participation, high population growth and urbanization, insufficient financial resource, lack of institutional capacity and insufficient water resources. The water demands of respondents are greater than supply of water in the town.
Regarding to the water supply interruption in Sodo Town is now a huge challenge and it affects the life of the residents in various ways. The frequency of water supply interruption revealed 118(80.2%) respondents stated there is interruptions and only 29(19.8%) respondents were indicated no interruptions. The reasons of interruption was scarcity of water source, technical problem, the power problem, weak sector management, urban population growth and successive raise of water demand, large number of residence using the single water point, poor maintenance and less water line protection.
Community participation is a crucial concern in the provision of infrastructure. However, the study indicated that, community participation is inadequate due weakness of responsible bodies to coordinate and mobilize the people for development activities. Regarding to community participation, there is most of community participation during the construction phase; generally level of society participation in the town is medium in all stages. The greater part of the households did not participate effectively during planning phases, which is the more significant phase. In other words communities’ knowledge through their experiences is not considered in the planning phases which can have impacts on sustainability.
The water supply and distribution is one of the vital needs of human beings, but the provision of potable water and distribution in Sodo town were insufficient. The existing condition of water supply service was do not satisfied more part of inhabitants due to shortage, unsafe for human consumption, per unit cost of water supply is high and water interruptions. Regarding to the private pipeline water connection of the households the study result indicated most households have not private pipeline water connection in the residence due to management condition, lack of money capacity, lack of pipeline in their compound , and lack of immediate response from the bureau.
The main challenges of water supply and distribution is population growth and urbanization, lack of technological capacity; insufficient financial resource, insufficient water resources and lack of institutional capacity were the major ones. Interruption of water supply is also another issue that causes water supply scarcity in the town. According to the findings of the study the reasons of interruption was scarcity of water source, technical problem, the power problem, urban population growth and successive raise of water demand, large number of residence using the single water point, poor maintenance and less water line protection. Regarding to the average duration of water supply interruption the study result shows interruption occurred four to five days per week, six to seven days per week and above seven days water interruption. According to study result there is great problem of water supply interruptions in the town.
The organized community participation in any socio economic development process had great contribution for the success and sustainability of the infrastructure. Concerning to this, the participation of stakeholders to improve water supply and distribution in the Sodo town government, society based organization participation, NGOs and other responsible body was participated to provide water service. Regarding to the provision of sufficient and equal distribution of drinking water for all dwellers the larger part of the households were revealed there no adequate and equal water supply and distribution to residents due to lack coordination among the concerned bodies, low participation of stakeholders, unfair provision, lack of attention influence the service. The more part of households stated that lack of coordination among the concerned bodies and low participation of stakeholders was influenced the provision.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are drawn.
The study result indicated that, the existing levels of water supply and distribution in Sodo town is town is inefficient. Hence, of all others STWSS should increase water supply and distribution to bring the system close to the households’ inhabitants. And these support the community to get connection at nearby and fair fee. The criteria located by the enterprise to get private water connection should be revised and the dweller gets water without exposed to more cost.
Community involvement should be encouraged in all phases like resource contribution, decision making and post implementation management. The STWSS has to intend strategies for a coordinated and organized intervention to involve stakeholders such as the government, community based organizations, NGOs, religious organizations and society at large to improve of the water provision. The helps of method for water supply and distribution assist budget and engaging different concerned bodies, the people at large, NGOs and other stakeholders in the town to progress the sector services.
Based on the result of the study the STWSS office should give great attention to progress the supply and distribution of private pipe line water and offer the residents with standard water supply by extending the services. This helps to rapid economic and social development progression by increasing the economic condition of community.
Water is the most significant of all community services and it is the most vital necessity of life after oxygen, the responsible bodies should improve unequal distribution and interruptions of water service and have to be evenly distributed in order to address the provision problem. In addition, installation of extra communal water points would slight down the gap between demands and supply of the consumption and to save money, time and energy and should apply more pressure for the division of excess water throughout the town. This helps to raise living standards and levels of income, employment, education and attention to cultural and human values.