Chickpea

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is most important pulse crop of India contributing about 30% of total pulse acreage and about 40% of total pulse production of the nation. India ranked first in area and production in the world, followed by Pakistan, Australia and Iran. The India productivity was 920 kg/ha yields. The total area and production of gram during was 88.80 lakh hectares and 85.09 lakh tones respectively. Madhya Pradesh ranked first contributing an area of (34.32% and 39.47 % of total area and production of country), followed by Rajasthan (16.64 % and 14.99%) and Maharashtra (16.09 % and 12.95). The highest yield was recorded in the state of A.P. (1239 kg/ha) followed by West Bengal (1179 kg/ha) and Bihar (1171 kg/ha). The lowest yield was recorded in Tamilnadu (649 kg/ha). Rajasthan as the third major chana producing state contributes to around 14% to the country’s total production. In the state, area covered under chana cultivation is nearly 7% of the state’s net sown area. Therefore, we can say that chana stands as an important pulses crop of Rajasthan, which plays a very important role in agri-commodity market. It has some nutritive values such as Protein – 18-22% Calcium – 280 mg/100 g Carbohydrate – 61-62% Iron – 12.3 mg/100 g Fat – 4.5 % Phosphorus – 301 mg/100 g Calorific value – 396 Agronomic significance: Leaving about 30-50 kg N/ha for successive crops, especially cereals. Intercrop cereals also get benefited through ‘N’ supplied by way of fixation in gram. It is mainly consumed as ‘Dal’ (split cotyledons) and chhole. Many attractive dishes viz – sweets, snacks and namkeen are also prepared from its floor called besan. Also eaten as whole fried or boiled and salted. Fresh green leaves (sag) are used as vegetables and green grains as hare chhole or chholia. Straw of gram is an excellent fodder while both husk and bits of ‘Dal’ are valuable cattle feed. Leaves consist of mallic and citric acid and are very useful for stomach ailments and blood purifier. (Pulses status in India 2016).