Communication is simply the act of transferring information from one place to another

Communication is simply the act of transferring information from one place to another.
Communication is a vital life skill and should not be overlooked and understand very well which shows and demonstrate good communication skill

Ans 3a)

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Introduction :
At first impression it seems that Mr Ajay has lost his interest and motivation for work which seems to be monotonous and not experience any technological enhancement for career growth despite good salary and incentives.
This seems to be mundane job in which no motivation is left to do the repetitive work and task .He needs job rotation to get new work to have new learning full of motivation and zeal to work
Motivation seems to be a simple function of management, but in practical it is more challenging.
The reasons for motivation being challenging job are as follows:
? Foremost reason of motivation being a challenging job is because of changing workforce. As the employees gradually become part and parcel of the organisation and develop various needs and expectations.
? Different employees in organisation have different beliefs attitudes values and thinking, because all comes from different back ground and have diversity
? Motivating factor for different employees will be different for all other employees, Suppose, there are two employees in a team showing varying performance despite being of same age group, having same educational qualifications and same work experience so they may have different factors which are motivation for one say money and salary and for another say technical work learning is more important which will bring the improvement.
? Motivation of employees becomes challenging when the they start putting extra efforts in peer pressure by staying back in office and hampering whole personal and professional routine which gradually being understood by the employee that in long run this type of work culture will not suit them
? The vigorous nature of needs also pose challenge to a manager in motivating his subordinates. This is because an employee at a certain point of time has diverse needs and expectations.
? Self-motivation is a power that drives us to keep moving ahead. It encourages continuous learning and success, whatever be the scenario. Self-motivation is a primary means of realizing our goals and progressing

Following are the ways/techniques for self-motivation:

Communicate and talk to get motivated: communication actually boosts up energy and moral and it can be done with colleagues friends, wife, or any one with whom ideas can be shared

Remain optimistic: its about understanding and analysing good in bad things and situation so that motivation is upheld always and avoid unnecessary problems and mental issues also..
Discover your interest area: if any employee have no interest then they should speak up and clearly discuss with management but if it is essential to perform then correlate and perform the task before moving on to other project and task in a strategic way.
Self-acknowledgement: self-appraisal and satisfaction is important to analysis and understand self-capabilities for improvement and learning.
Monitor and record your success: Always boost yourself on own achievement and keep recording and monitoring all the achievements so that in future one can be satisfied and happy also.
Uplift energy level: Energy is very essential for self-motivation. Do regular exercises. Have proper sleep.
Assist, support and motivate others: Discuss and share your views and ideas with your friends and peers and assist them in getting motivated.
Encourage learning: Always encourages learning. learn observe and inculcate good things which can bring big improvements in day to day life
Break your bigger goals into smaller goals:
Conclusion:
Motivation is the main cause which leads to employees to put efforts and implementation of ideas also. And if, employees are motivated they work more and beyond their designated role and are very spontaneous in decision and works. Organizational culture plays a critical role in motivating innovative behaviour, as it can create commitment among members of an organization in terms of believing in innovation as an organizational value and accepting innovation?related norms prevalent within the organization.

Ans 3B

Introduction:

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation
In 1959, Frederick Herzberg, a behavioural scientist proposed a two-factor theory or the motivator-hygiene theory. As per to Herzberg, there are certain job factors which leads to satisfaction while there are other job factors that prevent dissatisfaction. According to Herzberg, the opposite of “Satisfaction” is “No satisfaction” and the opposite of “Dissatisfaction” is “No Dissatisfaction”.
Herzberg has mentioned job factors into two ways-
a. Hygiene factors- Hygiene factors are essential for existence of motivation at workplace. This type of job factor does not lead to positive satisfaction for long-term. But if these factors are absent and are non-existent at workplace, then they lead to dissatisfaction. These factors are extrinsic to work. Hygiene factors are also called as dissatisfies or maintenance factors as they are required to avoid dissatisfaction. These factors basically tell us about the organisation and job environment/scenario. The hygiene factors symbolized the physiological needs which the individuals wanted and expected to be fulfilled. Hygiene factors include:
Pay – The pay or salary structure must be appropriate and should be equivalent to those who are in same domain in industry.

Company Policies and administrative policies – The company policies must not be too rigid. In fact, it should be clear and fairly flexible such as flexible working hour, leaves, and special leaves for women, breaks and vacations.
Fringe benefits – good health policy is very important and beneficial for employees in organisations and also health check-up camps, etc.
Physical Working conditions – The working environment should be safe and hygienic with all tools and equipment clean and updated.
Status – The employees’ status within the organization should be familiar and retained.
Interpersonal relations – The relationship of the employees with his peers, superiors and subordinates should be appropriate and acceptable.
Job Security – The organization must provide job security to the employees.

b. Motivational factors- According to Herzberg, the hygiene factors cannot be regarded as motivators. It is the motivational factors which develop positive satisfaction. These factors are related to work. These factors motivate the employees to perform well satisfactorily. These factors are called satisfiers. These are factors involved in performing the job. Employees find these factors as a challenge to perform well. Motivational factors include:

• Recognition – The employees should be praised and recognized for their accomplishments by the managers.
• Sense of achievement – The employees must have a sense of achievement. This depends on the job. There must be a fruit of some sort in the job.
• Growth and promotional opportunities – There must be growth and advancement opportunities in an organization to motivate the employees to perform well.
• Responsibility – The employees must hold themselves responsible for the work. The managers should give them ownership of the work. They should minimize control but retain accountability.
• Meaningfulness of the work – The work itself should be meaningful, interesting and challenging for the employee to perform and to get motivated.
Limitations of Two-Factor Theory
The two factor theory is not free from limitations:
1. The two-factor theory overlooks situational variables.
2. Herzberg assumed a correlation between satisfaction and productivity. Also Herzberg stressed upon satisfaction and ignored productivity.
3. The theory’s reliability is uncertain. An employee may find his job acceptable despite the fact that he may hate/object part of his job.
4. The two factor theory is not free from bias as it is based on the natural reaction of employees when they are enquired the sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work. They will blame dissatisfaction on the external factors such as salary structure, company policies and peer relationship. Also, the employees will give credit to themselves for the satisfaction factor at work.
5. The theory ignores blue-collar workers.

To summarise
The Two Factor Theory by Herzberg is a theory about motivation of employees in an organisation. The Two Factor Theory assumes on the one hand, that employees can be dissatisfied with their jobs. This often has something to do with so-called hygiene factors, such as salary and work conditions. On the other hand, employees’ satisfaction has to do with so-called motivation factors. These factors have to do with development opportunities, responsibility and appreciation. Which Ajay needs for his personal development despite all facilitations being provided
Herzberg claims these factors exist side by side. Taking away the dissatisfaction factors doesn’t necessarily mean employees will be satisfied. To motivate a team using motivation factors, the hygiene factors need to be taken care atmost.