Comparison between Qualitative research and Quantitative research is
Research is a tool to increase and enhance the knowledge and information about something.
Qualitative research is used in phenomenological analysis for the confirmation of proposition which takes concern the totally of event and does not attempt at analyzing it into quantifiable components.
Qualitative research compare to quantitative approach is by some regarded detailed perspectives of participants in the naturalistic setting.
Quantitative research is known as the traditional positivists the experimental or empirical tradition by some of the authorities likes Mill, Durkheim, Newton etc.
Quantitative approach uses measurement as the most defined and universally accepted method for assigning quantitative values.
Measurement of numbers to objects and events according to logically accepted rules.
Approach Qualitative Quantitative
Naturalistic approach phenomenological analysis used qualitative approach to the confirmation of proposition Scientific approach logical positivism uses quantitative approach the confirmation theoretical propositions
Deductive ( Top down approach) researcher formulates and uses hypothesis and theory with data Inductive ( Bottom up approach) researcher generates hypothesis and make theory from the data collected during field work
Understanding Based on rational positive paradigm interest specific hypothetical generalization with angle lens Based on phenomenological paradigm it understands the phenomenon in context specific setting in a wide angle and deep angle lens
Aim Aims at descriptive explanation and prediction of social phenomenon Aims at descriptive searching and discovery using depth knowledge.
Method Uses scientific method with hard science tapping. No sing method a wide range of discrete strategies and method.
Subject Behavior of the subject under study is assumed to be regular and expected studied under controlled condition Behavior of the subject is assumed to be fluid, dynamic situational, and personal studied under natural condition
Findings It aims at analysis of representative and validated quantitative data through sophisticated statistical and software package. The analysis of qualitative data requires organizing raw data into logical meaningful categories and examining them holistic fashion for interpretation of data.
There is some manipulation of the variable under controlled condition Study of red world situation as they unfold naturally without any
Time Takes little time to conduct Takes a long deal of time to conduct.
Merits and Demerits of Quantitative Paradigm
1. Research has statistical reliability.
2. Quantitative research involves quantifications based on number.
3. The results of quantitative research can be generalized.
4. The use of multivariate methods and analysis is helpful in measuring and controlling the variable or variables which intervene between independent and dependent variable 1. Quantitative research uses quantitative data.
2. It is not always possible to formulate specific hypothetical generalizations involve researcher bias.
3. The primary of disadvantages of quantitative research is that issues are measured.
4. If they know prior to be begin of the study especially in survey research.
1. Qualitative research is not a unitary approach. It utilizes a variety of alternative approach to the traditional positivistic research.
2. It utilizes qualitative data which are detailed and descriptive.
3. Qualitative research is most suitable in the study of human behavior which is fluid dynamic, situational social, contextual, and personal.
4. It does not start with advanced formulation of specific deductive hypothesis.
5. Qualitative research utilizes flexible design and avoids getting locked into rigid design.
6. The research has direct and close contact with the people situation and phenomenon under study.
7. The final report of the qualitative research studies are detailed and interesting narrations about the phenomenon. 1. Subjective bias is a constant threat to object data gathering tools and analysis of techniques.
2. The findings lack generalized because of the nature and size of the samples used for data collection.
3. Qualitative research utilizes a variety of methodologies in studying a phenomenon in holistic perspective in certain cases. It is difficult to focus on complex interdepoes of its parts and understand the meaning of the phenomenon as a whole.
4. It is cost effective and takes a long deal of time.
Criteria Quantitative Paradigm
Research work view Researcher comfort with the ontological epistemological axiological rhetorical and methodological assumption of the quantitative paradigm Researcher comfort with the ontological epistemological axiological rhetorical and methodological assumption of the qualitative paradigm
Thinking and Experience of the Researcher Technical writing skills, computer statistical skills, library skills Literary writing skills, computer text analysis skills, and library skills
Researcher physiological attributes Comfort with rules and guidelines for conducting research how tolerance for ambiguity time for study of short time. Comfort with lack of rules and procedure for conducting research high tolerance for ambiguity time for study of long time.
Nature of the problem Previously studied by other researcher so that body of literature exists know existing theories Audience for study individuals accustomed Exploratory research variable unknown context important may lack theory base for study individuals accustomed.
Criteria for Selection
Qualitative research is most suitable in the study of human behavior which is fluid dynamic situational social contextual and personal. While quantitative research involve quantification based on number. The result of the quantitative research can be generalized.
There are three experimental researches Design.
1- Pre-experimental research design
2- True-experimental research design
3- Quasi-experimental research design
I shall effect for effect of reading exercises on creative writing skills of secondary school student.
True-Experimental Research Design
In this research the correspondence of the experimental and control group is provided by random assignment of subject to experimental and control treatments.
The posttest only equivalent group design.
A) There is no pre test
B) It involves two groups
C) Subject is randomly assigned to groups.
D) Experimental group is exposed to independent variable.
E) Control group receives no treatment or usual treatment
F) Both the groups are post tested
R X O1
This design is one of the most effective to minimize the treats of experimental validity. It differs from the static group comparison design in that experimental and control groups are equated by random assignment at the conclusion of the experimental the different between the mean test scores of the experimental and control group subjected to a test of statistical significance a test or an analysis of variance. The statement is that the means of randomly assigned experimental and control groups from the same population will differ only sampling error. If the difference between the means is too great to attribute to sampling error the different may be attributed to the treatment variable effect.
The Pretest Post test Equivalent Groups Design.
a) This design involves at least two groups.
b) Both groups are formed by random assignment.
c) Both groups are administered a pretest
d) Experimental group receives new treatment.
e) Control group receives usual treatment.
f) Both group are post test
g) Post test score are compared to determine the effectiveness of the treatment
R O1 O2 X gain = O2 O O3 = pretest
RO3 CO4 C gain= O4- O3 O2 O4= posttest
The design is similar to the previously described design except that pretests are administered before the application of the experimental and control treatment and posttests at the end of the treatment period. Given score are compared and subjected to a test of the significance of the different between means pretest scores which can used in analysis of convince to statistically control for any difference between means, pretest score and can also be used in analysis covariance to statistically control for any difference between the group at the beginning of the study.
This design is a strong design.
The Solomon Four Group Design
R O1 X O2
R O3 CO4
R X O5
In this design
1) Subject is randomly assigned to four groups.
2) Two groups receive the experimental treatment.
3) One experimental group receives a pretest.
4) Two group ( control) do not receive treatment
5) One control group receive a protest
6) All group receive posttest O2 O4 O5O6
The design is really a combination of the two group design describes the posttest only and the pretest posttest. It is possible to evaluate the effect of testing history and maturation; because this design provides for the simultaneous experiments the advantages of a replication are incorporated. A major difficulty is finding enough subject to assign randomly to four equivalent groups.
Advantages of True Experimental design
Experimental research design is considered to be most powerful design to establish the causal relationship between independent & dependent variables. The purpose of research is explanation casual relationship which is established among the variables by experimentation, especially in studies involving physical object. The variables are more easily controlled than in human studies, conditions, not found in a natural setting can be created in an experimental setting where the independent variables manipulated by investigated.
In the experimental approach we can often create condition in a short period of time that may take years to occur naturally. For example in genetic studies we can sort strains in very small period of time which would take a long time in nature to occur.
When the experimental is conducted in a laboratory experimental unit or other special research setting it is removed from the pressure problem of real life situation the researcher can pursue his or her studies in a more leisurely careful concentrated way.
Disadvantage of Quasi-experimental Research
There is no fundamental extraneous variable influencing the dependent variable. The absence of control group or lade of control over the research setting make the results of his design less reliable wear of or the establishment of casual relationship between independent and dependent variables.
The Quasi-experimental and pre experimental are not selected for design. That is why the pre & Quasi experimental study reason is a disadvantage. That is why only true experimental design is selected.