consequences on tropical forests. We suggest that worldwide movements, through economic incentives or social learning, to reduce the consumption of fatty and unhealthy food and promote the use of non-tropical domestically-grown oils (e.g. rapeseed, canola, olive, sunflower, flax oil etc.) in food products and cosmetics could be more effective than certification schemes for the environmental sustainability. Future studies that also take into account other environmental impacts (e.g. fire, atmospheric pollution, etc.), human health issues, and the economy of these tropical productions, supported by our preliminary findings on forest degradation, are needed to further assess the actual sustainability of certified palm oil in the current environmental debate.