Define hardware

Define hardware:
A computer system consists of two major elements. One is hardware and other one is software. Those parts of computer which we can touch and feel are called Hardware. Some hardware can easily recognize such as monitor, keyboard, Mouse and etc.

Enlist common hardware:

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1. Monitor
2. CPU
3. Key Board
4. Ram
5. Rom
6. Motherboard
7. Mouse
8 Floppy Disc
Mother Board:
Mother board is the main component of CPU. It is the backbone of the computer. The purpose of the mother board is to allow all parts of your computer to receive power and communicate to others parts of the computer. It holds many of the crucial and important electrical components of the system.
Construction of mother board:
A processor built in micro processor. There is a fan on the processor to make it cool. There are two pots on the mother board one is mouse ports other one is key board ports. And third port is comport port in which mechanical machine cable are connects on this port, and the fourth port is parallel port in which printer cable is connect and this port is 36 fin. And the fifth port is vg port to show the display. And the USB port is also available and the version of this port is 3.0 and the purpose of this port is to joint USB hard disk and exceptional device, and the other port is sound port. There is a PCI spot on the mother board in which VG card and graphic card are slot .A ram slot also on the mother board to process a processor. Switch mode power supply is a power supply to operate a mother board. The input cable of the switch mode power cable are joint to 20 pin connector which is on the mother board and also there is a DVD port in this port we connect the DVD port.
Construction of mother board

Working of Mother Board:
Mother board is the main component of CPU. Working of the mother board is to allows all parts of your computer to receive power and communicate to others parts of the computer. The main job of the mother board is to hold the computer micro processor chip and let everything else connect it. The capacity and efficiency of mother board depends upon desk stop system.

Micro processor:-
A processor or micro processor is a small chip that is built in mother board has transistor built in it and also has cache memory to store information. The speed of cache memory is very high. Micro processor is a programmable device that accepts the data from input then process it and give us output. Modern processors can handle trillions of calculations per second.
Micro processor is also called the central processing unit. Micro processor is built in mother board This processor handle all the information.
The processors which include two cores are called Dual core processors. The processors which have four cores are called Quad core processors.
CONSTRUCTION:-

Parts of micro processor:-
1-Arithmetic and logic unit
2-Control unit:- The data we enter in the computer all the data stored in control unit and also control the flow of the data and information to other units of the microprocessor.
3-Prefetch unit:- it controls the flow of the data and give instruction to the decode unit from the instruction cache.
4-Cache:- The input we give the computer all the data store in cache memory and this data read micro processor easily.
5- Bus unit:- Bus unit connects the internal units of the micro processor like the control unit and Prefetch unit.
6- Decode unit:- decodes the various instructions sent to the microprocessor
7:-Registers:- store data required by the ALU Processor also include ALU ( Arithmetic and Logic Unit). ALU perform all mathematical operations like addition , subtraction, multiplication and division.
SPEED OF MICRO PROCESSOR:-
Speed of the micro processor depends upon these factor:-
1-Depends on the instructions it processor
2-bandwidth (32/64 bit)
3-clock speed (GHZ)
4-number of transistor built on it
WORKING OF MICRO PROCESSOR:-

Micro processor is a small chip built in mother board has transistor built on it and also has cache memory to store information. When we enter the input in the computer micro processor accepts this input after accepts this input the purpose of the micro processor to process this input and also store data in cache memory and give the output.
We can manage our storage devices with the help of processor. We can move our data from one drive to other drive . We can perform multi tasking with help of processors.
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RAM:
(RANDOM ACCESS MEMORAY) is the hardware in the computer. It is a temporary memory device in which data save temporary and this is very fast memory. The steps of our computer to process the data are three. No one is the data store in permanently is called hard drive and this data transfer into temporary is called ram and this data process in the CPU. Ram is in the centre between storage device and central processing unit

CONSTUCTION OF Ram:

Random access memory consist of four main parts
1-The memory matrix, built as a 2d-arrey of 1 bit storage cell.
2-The address decoder
3-The input buffer and amplifiers
4-The output buffers and amplifiers
Also additional applets are provided to demonstrate the individual sub components of the ram.
Single bit memory
Address decoder
Bitline buffer.

RAM stored on the mother board in modules that are called DIMMs(dual inline memory modules) because it has two independent rows of pins. Dims can have 168,184 or 288 pins. Ram is installed on the mother board in the memory slots. The average mother board will have between 2 and 4 memory slots. In order to a program to run, it needs to be loaded into ram first. Ram contains capacitor. The capacitor is like a small bucket to store electricity. Capacitor have to be refreshed with electricity constantly. In order to minimize the chip size of the RAM, a very small size of each storage cell and an efficient layout and signal routing in the memory matrix is essential. The two most important types of RAM differ in the choice of the storage cell.
Working of RAM:
RAM randomly access the data from memory that’s why it is called random memory. Basically ram is a internal memory of computer laptop and mobile. Ram plays a important role in computer storage. Ram memory is a space in which data stored. Working of ram is very simple when the user input the any data the data will store in ram and this data take processor to process it, when we on the computer the data in the ram are loading when we install the application or any file, all the file save in hard drive when we open this file the data automatically load in RAM. When we input the computer data is loading in the ram processor connects with the ram and pick this data and process it and finally we have output. ram directly connected with the north bridge of a mother board and north bridge directly connected with central processing unit.
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ROM:
Rom stands for read only memory.rom is an non-volatile memory that means the data in ROM is not be deleted automatically when the power is off. ROM can store the data permanently. The data cannot be modified as it writes on ROM and ROM is not use for large memory
EXAMPLE:
CD ROM
COMPUTER BIOS CHIP
TYPES OF ROM:
1. PROM
2. EPROME
3. EEPROME
They all are classified on the basis of DATA to be stored on it
CONSTRUCTION OF ROM:-
A Rom consists of a decoder and a memory arrey. When a pattern of 0s and 1s is applied to the decoder inputs exactly one of the decoders outputs will be active. The active output line of the decoder will select a word from the memory arrey. From left to right, the circuit consists of three stages. The first stage, usually Called address-decoder in memory circuits, is a standard demuliplexer. The memory matrix is the main part of the ROM. For each word line, a connection is made to those bit lines (vertical) that should be activated for the corresponding memory word. In bipolar technology, simple diodes can be used to make the connections of word lines to bit lines. However, usually transistors are used to amplify the word line signal.