EVOLUTION

EVOLUTION: NEXT-GENERATION SEQUENCING WITH BIG DATA ANALYTICS USING MACHINE LEARNING
Introduction
The exponential growth of the number of biological and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) data has led to found a variety of way to satisfy the need of era. Gratitude to the advancement technologies of NGS methods 1. NGS has led imitation in the amount of genomic data and this has raised challenges of sharing, archiving, integrating and analysing the data 2. Genome sequencing has been the mode of interest for researchers for past few years, until date the predictions have relied on to the earlier concepts and sequencing hypothesis.
Next-generation sequencing refers to non-Sanger-based high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies. Millions or billions of DNA strands can be sequenced in parallel, yielding substantially more throughput and minimizing the need for the fragment-cloning methods that are often used in Sanger sequencing of genomes.5
The potential advances in sequencing and mapping have undergone a key movement far from the old conventional strategies to recently discovered advanced brisk and dependable innovations. These methods have led to certain scientific leads, which have almost changed the face of sequencing strategies with increased investment of high-throughput sequencing projects.
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), a recently evolved technology, have served a lot in the research and development sector of our society. This novel approach is a newbie and has critical advantages over the traditional Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) based Sanger Sequencing. The advancement of NGS has led to numerous important discoveries, which could have been costlier and time taking in case of traditional CE based Sanger sequencing. NGS methods are highly parallelized enabling to sequence thousands to millions of molecules simultaneously. This technology results into huge amount of data, which need to be analysed to conclude valuable information. Specific data analysis algorithms are written for specific task to be performed. The algorithms in group, act as a tool in analysing the NGS data. Analysis of NGS data unravels important clues in quest for the treatment of various life-threatening diseases; improved crop varieties and other related scientific problems related to human welfare. In this review, an effort was made to address basic background of NGS technologies, possible applications, computational approaches and tools involved in NGS data
Analysis, future opportunities and challenges in the area.6
NGS provides voluminous data related to specific area of interest for large number of species. The major goal of the HGP was to determine the sequence of the chemical base pairs of DNA, and to identify and map all the genes of the human genome. The major goal of the HGP was to determine the sequence of the chemical base pairs of DNA, and to identify and map all the genes of the human genome
The exact order of nucleotides which occur in DNA is obtained by DNA sequencing method. To derive the genetic information from biological systems researchers often use method of DNA sequencing .Decoding DNA sequences is most imp and necessary for all branches of life sciences and is most imp key to decode DNA & due to easiness and available technology it is getting real easy for researchers to understand sequencing from past years. Edward Sanger in 1975 discovered method known as ‘sangers method/sequencing. At that time it was the only know method know ; rather proved to be gold standards for sequencing and was continued for over 3 decades. After sanger sequencing there was major breakthrough knows as ‘HUMAN GENOME PROJECT ‘ (HGP)FOR FIRST SEQUENCING METHOD.
PROJECT TIME-13 YEARS
PROJECT COST- $ 3 MILLION
COMPLETION YEAR-2003
But due to inherent limitations like seeped ; scalability etc ; second sequencing method/next generation sequencing method came into existence which was able to render high demands from cheaper and faster sequencing techniques, thus ngs proved to be renowned approach for sequencings ; many discoveries that changed the scenario of genomic research. Thus made theories clear about genome ; transpictome, epigenome of different organisms/species.
Thus NGS proved to be more revolutionary for development of human welfare ;knowledge. basically principal of NGS is based on capillary electrophoresis based sanger method but NGS is more advanced and perform massive parallel sequencing in which millions of fragments caned be sample accurately from single DNA in NGS large size of DNA base pair can be sequenced which often produce 100gb data in single run, due to which human genome can be completely sequenced in less than 24 hrs.