FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND GOVERNANCE ORIENTATION TO GOVERNMENT STUDIES 1

FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT SCIENCES
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND GOVERNANCE
ORIENTATION TO GOVERNMENT STUDIES 1 (OGS150S_FT)
PAIRED ASSIGNMENT
LECTURE: ANDRE CORNELIUS
DUE DATE: 27 AUGUST 2018
NAME & SURNAME STUDENT NUMBERS
YAMKELA NYHWEBA 218126697
MANDILAKHE NTSHINKA 218008732
Content
Critically analyse and discuss the role of politics, government and governance in the public service delivery framework in South Africa
Introduction and background…………………………………………………………….… 3
Role of politics…….……………………………..………..….…………………………….…4
Role of government………………………..…………………………………………………..5
Role of governance……………………………………………………………………….……6
National government……………………………………………………..……………….…..7
Provincial government………………………………………………………………….….….7
Local government………………………………………………………………………………8
Types of municipalities………………………………………………………………………..9
Powers of municipal council………………………………………………………………….10
Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………….11
Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………12?
Introduction
According to Audrey (2012), Service Delivery in South Africa has been one of the critical concerns of the government lately. The departments have been unable to meet the targets as set in the major policies and strategies such as Millennium Goals of SA and other documents. The provision of basic services such as water, sanitation, housing, health and poverty were key to those service deliver plans. Despite many attempts by different spheres of government, to deal with the problem, this proved to be failure. Issues such as poor interpretation of policies, corruption, maladministration of resources, lack of coordination and aligned programmes as well as lack of skills and monitoring by officials were to be dealt with in length to curb the problems of service delivery. (Audrey, 2012)
BACKGROUND
Service delivery is the extent to which service has been delivered according to the communities as the beneficiaries of the services. It is the set of principles, standards, policies and constraints used to guide the design, development, deployment, operation and retirement of services delivered. Development implies the bridging of the gaps between the rich and poor by means of imitative processes, in which the poor gradually assume the qualities of the rich. The focus of Service Delivery is widely interpreted by the development of houses and acknowledging the fact that, housing development in South Africa, is the most critical basic need despite the scarcity of land and other challenges of the past Apartheid regime. About housing matters, the delivery of services such as water, electricity, sanitation and access to roads becomes of primary concern to the researcher. Consequently, issues such as health, education and skills development, job creation and environmental matter are the secondary and causal effects of service delivery as well as processes of the acquisition of land. (Audrey, 2012)
Batho Pele, a Sesotho word, which means “People First”, is an initiative that was launched in 1997 to transform the Public Service at all levels. Batho Pele was launched because democratic South Africa inherited a Public Service that was not people-friendly and lacked the skills and attitudes to meet the developmental challenges facing the country. In the struggle to transform the Public Service, the old culture must be changed to ensure that our people are served properly, that all staff work to their full capacity and treat state resources with respect
Batho Pele is an approach to get public servants and the government at large committed to serving people and to find ways to improve service delivery. This approach also requires the involvement of the public in holding the Public Service accountable for the quality of service provided. Batho Pele is also about moving the Public Service from a rules-bound approach that hinders the delivery of services to an approach that encourages innovation and is results driven. In other words, instead of looking for reasons why government cannot do something, they must find better ways to deliver what people need this is one of the formulas used to enhance service delivery.

Role of Politics
Politics is the struggle amongst actors pursuing conflicting desires on public issues, it is the process which power is applied and are based on disagreements. There are four pillars of politics to try achieving what is desirable that are used which are Disagreements, Freedom, Diversity of people and order as politics take place in different environments, societies, political systems and different times and places in a stable democracy there must be order as it is expected an important pillar of politics. Politics concern the use of power and also involve decision making by people who are consider the achievement of certain objectives desirable.

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Political parties perform many useful tasks for society which vary according to the political systems in which they operate. Some basic functions are nevertheless widely shared although political parties perform them at different degrees. Lodge and Farik (2015: xvii) distinguish between two broad functions on the other hand the functions of translating their values into policy which then drives parties aims and activities, on the other hand parties have a public function which include the following
Aggregate and articulate the interest, demands and needs of the people and represent their will, when elected as the governing party they have obligation to govern in the interest of the society as a whole
Mobilising support for candidates and stimulate electoral stimulation
Form and sustain governments
Propose policies and programmes to solve societal problems
in the process of coming into democracies burdened by the challenge of state and nation building political parties are often expected to fulfil additional roles such as enhancing government stability and social inclusion and embarking on the process of economic restructuring and national integration (Spies, 2015:1-6)
Role of Government1.’To promote the general Welfare’ – The government fulfils this function in many ways, including monitoring the economy, businesses, and banks; maintaining the postal service, education system, roads, and public utilities like water, sewer, and electricity; regulating the safety of food
2.Section 197( 1) of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (Act 108 of 1996) (herein after referred to as the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996) states that there is a public service for the Republic which must function and be structured in terms of national legislation and which must loyally execute the lawful policies of the government of the day. According to section 7(2) of the Public Service Act (Proclamation 103 of 1994) (herein after referred to as the Public Service Act, 1994) the responsibility for administration will be that of the national and provincial departments and organisational components named in the Public Service Act, 1994. While section 8 of the Public Service Act, 1994 elaborates that the South African public service constitutes all persons holding fixed positions or permanent additional appointments in these bodies. Also included are the Permanent Force of the National Defence Force, the South African Police Service, the Department of Correctional Services, the Department of National Intelligence Services and state educational institutions
3.In South Africa, municipalities are key role-players in improving the lives of ordinary people. According to the manifesto of political parties, each at least at a local government level promises to deliver on clean water, do away with the bucket system in Black areas, deliver on proper roads, ensure electricity is working, and ensure that there is proper collection of garbage. In short, the infrastructure for creating a better life for all people is there. This is in addition to the broader issue of lack of houses for the poor which has become one of the key promises by politicians. In terms of the Acts that apply to local government, one of the key objectives is for local government to ensure sustainable service delivery takes place at this level of governance which ultimately affects every citizen. The Act also facilitates the participation of communities in their own development through local government (Jolobe, 2007).

Role of Governance
Governance is defined as the connection and interaction between national, provincial and local authorities and the public they serve, it implies the actions undertaken to improve the general welfare of society by service delivered meaning that the constitutional, legal and administrative arrangements by which government exercise its power as well as the related mechanism for the public accountability, rule of law, transparency and citizen participation.
Government has the responsibility to make policies and laws about the rights and responsibilities of citizens and the delivery of government services. Government collects revenue from taxes and uses this money to provide services and infrastructure that improves the lives of all the people in the country, particularly the poor.

The Constitution of South Africa sets the rules for how government works. There are three spheres of government in South Africa:
National government
Provincial government
Local government
Each sphere of government is made up of three parts
The elected members – who represent the public and approve policies and laws
The cabinet or executive committee – who co-ordinate the making of policies and laws and oversee implementation by the government departments
The departments and civil servants – who are responsible for doing the work of government
National Government
Laws and policies are approved by the National Assembly (parliament) and the National Council of Provinces NCOP. The national assembly is made up of members of parliament, elected every five years. The NCOP is made up of representatives of provincial legislatures and local government. The president is elected by parliament and appoints a cabinet of ministers. They act as the executive committee of government and each minister is the political head of a government department. Each government department is responsible for implementing the laws and policies decided on by parliament or the cabinet. Government departments are headed by a Director General and employ directors and civil servants to do the work of government.

Every department prepares a budget for its work. The budgets are put into one national budget by the Treasury Department of Finance and must be approved by parliament. The Treasury must balance the income and expenditure of government in the budget and will rarely give departments everything they ask for. Provincial or local government may not do anything that is against the laws or policies set down by national government. Provincial government gets most of its money from the national Treasury. Local government also gets grants and some loans through the Treasury. The Department of Provincial and Local Government is responsible for national co-ordination of provinces and municipalities.

Provincial Government
There are nine provincial governments. Some provincial laws are approved by legislatures in each province. The legislature also passes a provincial budget every year. Legislatures are elected in provincial elections that are held with national elections, every five years. A premier is elected by the legislature and appoints Members of the Executive Council MECs to be the political heads of each provincial department. The MECs and the Premier form the provincial executive council.

Provincial departments employ directors and civil servants to do the work of government most of the civil servants in the country fall under provincial government – these include teachers and nurses. The provincial MEC and Department of Local Government are responsible for co-ordination, monitoring and support of municipalities in each province.

Local Government
The whole of South Africa is divided into local municipalities. Each municipality has a council where decisions are made and municipal officials and staff who implement the work of the municipality, the council is made up of elected members who approve policies and by-laws for their area the council must pass a budget for its municipality each year they must also decide on development plans and service delivery for their municipal area. The work of the council is co-ordinated by a mayor who is elected by council. The mayor is assisted by an executive or mayoral committee, made up of councillors. The mayor together with the executive also oversees the work of the municipal manager and department heads.

The work of the municipality is done by the municipal administration that is headed by the municipal manager and other officials. S/he is responsible for employing staff and co-ordinating them to implement all programmes approved by council. Types of municipalities
There are three different types of municipalities in South Africa:
Metropolitan municipalities Category A:
Metropolitan municipalities exist in the six biggest cities in South Africa. They have more than 500 000 voters and the metropolitan municipality co-ordinates the delivery of services to the whole area. There are metropolitan municipalities in Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban, Pretoria, Port Elizabeth and the East Rand. These municipalities are broken into wards. Half the councillors are elected through a proportional representation ballot, where voters vote for a party. The other half are elected as ward councillors by the residents in each ward.

Local municipalities Category B:
Areas that fall outside of the six metropolitan municipal areas are divided into local municipalities. There is a total of 231 of these local municipalities and each municipality is broken into wards. The residents in each ward are represented by a ward councillor. Only people who live in low population areas, like game parks, do not fall under local municipalities. The areas are called District Management Areas and fall directly under the District Municipality. Half the councillors are elected through a proportional representation ballot, where voters vote for a party. The other half are elected as ward councillors by the residents in each ward.

District municipalities Category C:
District municipalities are made up of several local municipalities that fall in one district. There are usually between 4 – 6 local municipalities that come together in a district council. Some district municipalities also include nature reserves and the areas where few people live – these are called district management areas. They fall directly under the district council and have no local council. The district municipality has to co-ordinate development and delivery in the whole district. It has its own administration The district council is made up of two types of councillors: Elected councillors – they are elected for the district council on a proportional representation ballot by all voters in the area. 40% of the district councillors who represent local municipalities in the area – they are local councillors sent by their council to represent it on the district council ,60% of the district councillors. While metropolitan municipalities are responsible for all local services, development and delivery in the metropolitan area, local municipalities share that responsibility with district municipalities. This is especially the case in very rural areas, where district municipalities will have more responsibility for development and service delivery.

Municipalities are responsible to deliver these services to the people, Electricity delivery, Water for household use, Sewage and sanitation, Storm water systems, refuse removal, Firefighting services and Municipal health services to name a few
National or provincial government can also delegate other responsibilities to municipalities. When municipalities are asked to perform the role of another sphere of government, clear agreements should be made about who will pay the cost. If municipalities are given responsibility for something without being given a budget to do the work, it is called an “un-funded mandate”.

Municipal councils have the power to:
Pass by-laws – local laws and regulations about any of the functions they are responsible for. By-laws may not contradict or over-rule any national laws
Approve budgets and development plans – every year a municipal budget must be passed that sets down how money will be raised and spent
Impose rates and other taxes – property rates are a form of tax that municipalities can place on the value of properties. It is an important source of income.

Charge service fees – for us of municipal services like water, electricity, libraries, etc.

Impose fines – for anyone who breaks municipal by laws or regulations, for example traffic fines, littering or library fines.

Borrow money – the council may agree to take a loan for a development or other project and to use the municipal assets as surety.

Conclusion
In conclusion with good administration during transition and the future of the public services the following need special attention reorganising of administration to avoid fraud and corruption, Uniformity of salaries and good conditions of services, Appointment on merit and appointing suitable qualified candidates, Application of the Batho Pele principles would assist in improving service delivery in South Africa.

Bibliography
www.etu.org.za/toolbox/docs/goven/shperes.html
Jobe, 2. 2007. Local government in South Africa