Hyksos (Hyksos) in ancient Asia a mix of western nation, Xi Kesuo also translated Xi Kesuo . They entered eastern Egypt in the previous 17th century and established the 15th and 16th dynasties there (from about 1674 to 1548). They overthrew Egypt’s weakened thirteenth dynasty ( Memphis , the capital ) and ruled Central and Lower Egypt for more than one hundred years. Hyksos new war technologies such as composite bow , the horse and the horse-drawn chariot introduced in Egypt. The facts of the two dynasties they established are not yet clear today, but the rulers of the two dynasties are not related to each other. The traditional view is generally only the six Fifteenth Dynasty rulers called the Hyksos, and sixteenth dynasty of princes are numerous Hyksos, other Asian Semitic people obey the new rule The mix of local Egyptian princes. The name of the ruler of the fifteenth dynasty we know today. These names were found in Egyptian architecture, gemstones and other small objects carved with scarab beetles, and in the Egyptian history of Mannisso . Manisho’s history of Egypt was written by Ptolemy II , and only the remains are left today. This period of weakness, foreign rule, and chaos in Egyptian history is called the second intermediate period .
The arrival of the Hixos
About 1786 before the end of the powerful twelfth dynasty , the thirteenth dynasty inheriting it was very weak. The capitals of these two dynasties are not in Thebes , Egypt , but in Memphis , a place called It-tawy (literally translated as “the controller of the two countries”). It is located at the southern end of the Nile Delta. Although this place is located in the center of ancient Egypt, the thirteenth dynasty was not even able to control the whole of Egypt here. First of all, a relatively strong family of swamps in the west of the Delta split from the center and established the 14th dynasty . During the reign of Neferthot I (about 1740 to 1730) in the middle of the thirteenth dynasty , the split process was intensified. During the reign of Sobeh Hotep IV, the brother and successor of Neferhotep I, the Hyksos appeared in the Nile Delta . About 1720 they occupied Avallis . Name Prince Hyksos rule these eastern Delta and their dependents of all in Egypt Scarab recorded on. Together they are collectively called the 16th Dynasty.
Manisho , an Egyptian priest who lived for about the first 300 years or so , mentioned the “invasion” of the savage Hyksos in his famous Egyptian history. Man Nisuo in his narrative, wrote in a “Tuti Mai of Sri Lanka” ( Tutimaios , today it is generally believed that the pharaoh DU to Mo I choose , Djedneferra Dudimose the I ) during the reign of the Hyksos occupation of Egypt. However, the above-mentioned Pharaoh’s reigning time will not be earlier than in 1674. Therefore Mannisso’s description may be that of Sarutes’ occupation of Memphis and its nearby capital. Sarutus was the founder of the fifteenth dynasty. Although the thirteenth dynasty theoretically continued until around the year around 1633, its later rulers were only the regional rulers of Central Egypt and were the dependants of the Hixos. At the same time as Memphis lost, it may correspond to this incident. The local ruling family in Egypt announced that it had broken away from the rule of Memphis and established an independent dynasty and the 17th Dynasty . The dynasty later returned the Hixosians to Asia and liberated Egypt.
Who is Hixos?
Hiksos came from Heka khasewet in the ancient Egyptian text (the literal meaning of the translation was “Exotic ruler”). In the Old Kingdom period this term refers to some of the Nubian chief in the Middle Kingdom refers to Syria – Palestine some of the nomadic chiefs. It is generally believed that only the six pharaohs of the fifteenth dynasty were the Hixos, not only because they were called by the Egyptian king, but also because Mannisso called them Hixos in his records. It is generally believed that these six kings ruled Egypt for a total of 108 years. It has been proposed Hyksos belong Hurrians , or even their domination of West Asia is a huge in Egypt Hu Ritter empire part, but more recent studies clearly demonstrate that major Hyksos Belongs to the Semitic , but has nothing to do with the Hurits, and they are probably Canaanites .
The names, order, and even the total number of the fifteenth dynasty kings are still uncertain today. These names appear in the hieroglyphs on buildings or on small objects such as scarabs. However, these names are often not very clear, and sometimes it is not clear whether the corresponding names refer to the same person or different people. The chronology of this period of time in Egypt’s history is still very confusing, and new developments may only be made at this point when new documents and objects of a certain age are discovered.
Manisho’s history of Egypt was only passed down by other people’s books. But the order of the six kings listed in these works is also different. Moreover, the spelling differences between these names are so large that they cannot be linked together at all. The names of the scarabs unearthed in Egypt are also very different and they cannot be linked together.
Manny Sasso stated that when the Hixos arrived in Egypt, they were an armed aggression of a foreign barbarian and they conquered the country without much resistance. It is said that they brought new revolutionary military technologies when they invaded, including compound bows, chariots, better arrows, various swords and daggers, a new type of shield, chain armour, and metal helmets. and many more. If the Higgsians had only a few new technologies, their military advantage was much higher than that of the Egyptians, so these narratives reinforced the impression that the savage Asian tribes were armed to invade Egypt.
Today, however, most people think that there is not such a one-time armed invasion. It is more likely that many West Asian tribes (mainly the Semites) have peacefully infiltrated into Eastern Egypt in the last decades of the middle dynasty. It was pointed out that it was impossible for the Semigroups to invade Egypt from the south of Palestine through the Sinai peninsula because the tribes there were too weak at the time and they could not support such invasion. In addition there is no unified country in these places. As time goes by, there are more and more Asian tribes in the eastern part of Egypt. They have gradually strengthened their control over local Egyptian cities and regions. In the end, a tribal leader raised the question of whether a hereditary king still had the right to occupy the position of the king, although he had already had no right of the king. These Hicksos leaders took the initiative and attacked and occupied the capital, Memphis, calling themselves Pharaohs .