In the 19th century

In the 19th century, Battery was the main source of electricity before the existence of electric generators and electrical grids. Since of its invention, battery been used widely as a source of stored electricity. A successive development of battery innovation encourage major electrical advances, from just a studies on battery to a development of telegraphs and telephones , and lead to portable computers, cell phones, electric autos, and numerous other electrical gadgets (“History of the battery,” n.d.).
In 1749, American scientist and inventor named Benjamin Franklin the first used the term “battery” when he was doing experiments with electricity using a set of linked capacitors. The primary battery was concocted by the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta in 1800. Volta stacked plates of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) isolated by cloth soaked in salty water. Wires connected with to either end of the stack delivered a consistent stable current. By multiple the stack of plates together, more current will be obtained.
In 1859, the oldest example of rechargeable battery, lead-acid battery also known as the most enduring batteries were invented and until todays this innovation still been used to start the internal combustion engine cars. Chemical element in batteries generate different voltage power that battery can supply. The stacking of the cells in series increases the voltage, while their connection in parallel enhances the supply of current. This principle is used to add up to the required voltages and currents, all the way to the Megawatt sizes.
Battery is divided into three type namely primary battery, secondary battery and flow battery (fuel cell). The primary battery is when the reaction that produces the flow of electron cannot be reversed for example the common battery is the zinc-carbon battery. This battery also called as alkali batteries that we buy from supermarket. The secondary battery is the rechargeable battery, the earliest rechargeable batteries is the nickel-cadmium battery (NiCd). This type of battery can produce electricity continuously over a long period of time. These types of batteries are very sensitive, where it cannot be charged too long and cannot be placed at hot place that may cause to overheating during charge, therefore the charge rate is controlled below a maximum rate.
Lithium-ion Batteries is the first successful toward development of battery. In 1980, the American physicist Professor John Goodenough invented a new type of Lithium battery which can transfer through battery from one electrode to another as a Li+ ion. Lithium is one of the lightest components in the periodic table and it has one of the biggest electrochemical potentials, highest voltage can be obtain through the mixes.
Numerous new applications currently exist for these new cells, from power tools to hybrid and electric vehicle. Maybe the most vital application will be storage of domestic electric energy for households.