Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by gluten intake in genetically susceptible persons. (1) in most European countries, the prevalence of the disease is (0.5% – 1%) of the general community. In spite of, Saudi Arabia there are no reported nationwide epidemiological studies of CD mass screening in children.(2) In fact, There has been an apparent elevation in CD incidence over the past three decades.(3) The apparent difference between children and adults is the clinical expressiveness of the disease at the time of diagnosis. (1) The most common clinical presentations of CD in younger children were diarrhea, irritability and weight loss. However, older children more commonly featured with abdominal pain. (3) A direction towards lower clinical presentations can be observed as age increases. (1) As CD often has an odd presentation or even asymptomatic, many cases go undiscovered and are at risk to the long-term problems.(4) This retrospective study aimed to describe and illustrate the trend of celiac disease from different aspects of our patients at King Abdulaziz university hospital.
This is a retrospective study demonstrates all patients who had been diagnosed with CD at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in the period between January 2010 and December 2017. We created a complete database of our patients who were diagnosed with celiac disease according to the serum tissue transglutaminase IgA count and the duodenal biopsy through MARSH classification. Data were analyzed using SPSS last version.
Results and discussion:
A total of 108, (51.9% females) were included in the study. Their mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 11.5 (4.13) years (range, 3.00-18.00 years).
Our results showed that the diabetes mellitus type 1 had the highest percentage of comorbidity with celiac disease patients (25%), followed by the hypothyroidism (9.3%).
Fifteen patients were detected during screening with short stature (13.9%) and nine patients with down syndrome (8.3%).
Laboratory findings of participants in TTG- IgA levels at different years (table1). According to total IgA level, (14.8%) was high comparable with (24.1%) normal results, however, there was (59.3%) missing data.
The initial small-bowel biopsy showed hyperplasia (26.9%) and partial atrophy (26.9%), followed by subtotal atrophy (13.9%) and infiltration (8.3%).
CD clinically can present with typical symptoms or be recognized through screening programs. It is important to differentiate between CD and IgA deficiency enteropathy. It is quite essential for the patient not to lose follow up; therefore, our hospital made a full dedicated clinic for celiac patients on a weekly basis to guide and to monitor them and provide the care they need.