MANAGEMENT PROFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF REPAIRS AND MAINTENANCE PROGRAMME AT UGANDA BREWERIES LIMITED
This study is proposed with a focus on the process of establishing an effective repair and maintenance programme for machines in a manufacturing organization. Like any other research project, this chapter has sections of background to the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research objectives, research questions, scope of the study, significance of the study and the conceptual framework. All these are explained in detail in the sections that follow.
The section of background is further divided into four other subsections. These present the historical, theoretical, conceptual and contextual components of the background. These are presented in detail in the subsections that follow.
THE PROBLEM OF MACHINES PERFOMANCE AND HOW IT HAS EVOLVED OVERTIME. ALSO TRACE THE MANAGEMENT PROFICIENCY ISSUES
Uganda Breweries Limited (UBL) was established in 1946. From the time of its inception, it has been the market leader in the production and distribution of alcohol and spirits CITATION EAB13 l 1033 (EABL, 2013). This was before it was acquired by the East African Breweries Limited (EABL) of Kenya. UBL was acquired by EABL in 1959 becoming one of the many acquisitions that EABL had in East Africa CITATION Eas15 l 1033 (East African Breweries Limited, 2015).
UBL is wholly owned by EABL meaning that UBL is a 100% subsidiary of EABL. From its humble beginnings, UBL had a capacity of producing and distributing about 650,000 hectoliters per year. This capacity gradually increased over years to the current level of about 1.2 million hectoliters of alcohol and spirits in a year CITATION Uga172 l 1033 (Uganda Breweries Limited, 2017). A production expansion of about 50% per annum is also projected.
In terms of cases of beer, the number was about 75,000 cases per month in 1991. This translates into about 3400 cases on a daily basis in 1991. This figure increased to about 27,000 cases per day in 2017 CITATION Uga172 l 1033 (Uganda Breweries Limited, 2017). This represents increase in production by 694% over a period of 26 years.
Reflected increase in production depicts increase in production capacity of UBL. This however does not necessarily mean that the department in charge of machinery involved in production is performing well. Records indicate that there are tendencies of staff in the machine repairs and maintenance department declaring machines as fit for purpose when they are actually not fit CITATION DIA10 l 1033 (DIAGEO International Supply Centre, 2010). This has therefore presented a challenge in the repairs and maintenance department. Todate, this challenge still exists.
The challenge of machine breakdown started as early as 2015. Though it was not clear by then, the repairs and maintenance department frequent requests for repairs to be done on machinery. The levels of repairs almost doubled between 2015 and 2017. This further reflected the quality of repairs that was done on the machinery. Though it was done according to company policy, from the reasonability point of view, increase in the number of repairs reflects a challenge in the whole exercise of repairs and maintenance CITATION Rep17 l 1033 (UBL-Officer, 2017). Its continued existence todate is a reflection that the problem in the department of repairs and maintenance still exists.
Management members on the other hand have been progressing well in their journey to make UBL one of the best FMCG company in Uganda and East Africa. Available records however indicate that since the introduction of the computerized system of keeping records, managers at UBL have gradually been drifting into high reliance on the computerized system without taking trouble to establish whether the data fed into the computers is of good quality or not. Though it started with a small section of the department, this tendency has spread to the other sections of the repairs and maintenance department.
Overreliance on the computerized systems has made managers and officers of the department become more of administrators of the computerized system. This has overtime reduced the level of association between supervisors and staff as well as the level of reliance on accountability. By doing the possibility of one feeding in lies into a computerized system was overlook.
Challenges in repairs and maintenance department could also be viewed from the theoretical point of view. Classical theories of management are useful in contextualizing what is happening in UBL and other companies of similar nature CITATION Ali132 l 1033 (Nadrifar, Bandani, & Shahryari, 2013).
Though they are all management theories, not all are useful in explaining the situation in UBL. The outstanding theory in this context that shall be considered in this study is that of Henry Fayol. In this theory, the aspects of planning, leading, organizing, controlling and coordinating are emphasized. The theory of Max Weber also supports this. Both theories emphasize the aspect of efficiency and effectiveness in organizational productivity CITATION Jan16 l 1033 (Ferdous, 2016).
In relation to Uganda Breweries Limited, challenges in the machine repairs and maintenance department could be linked to these two classical theories of Henry Fayol and Max Weber. This therefore means that there could be a lapse in the management proficiency of the department that needs to be handled as suggested by the classical theories CITATION Sar13 l 1033 (Sarker & Khan, 2013).
Though the classical management theories present a good case, contemporary management theories bring in a new angle to management that needs to be considered in the changing times of business environment. In this context, the use of contingency theory shall be considered in this study. This helps to appreciate that there is no one single way of handling a management problem. Management problems need to be dealt with as they are presented and taking into consideration the prevailing circumstances on an entity at the time a management problem happens. This makes contingency theory very applicable in the case of repairs and maintenance department of Uganda Breweries Limited CITATION Yas04 l 1033 m McG16 (Olum, 2004; McGrandle, 2016).
Use of management theories to understand the challenges experienced in the repairs and maintenance department of UBL is an affirmation that the challenges are indeed management challenges CITATION Joy16 l 1033 (Cox, 2016). Repairs and maintenance department needs to be effective in handling the repairs to enable UBL continue in its trajectory of increase in amount of alcohol produced and sold out CITATION DIA10 l 1033 (DIAGEO International Supply Centre, 2010). This effectiveness needs to be caused implying that there is need for the people in that department to work together to bring about the needed effectiveness.
What does effective mean? Effectiveness is realized when the right procedures of repairs and maintenance are used in the repairs and maintenance activities. This however requires the people involved to be experts in the work they do so that they are in position of discovering the challenges a machine faces and be able to administer the correct repairs or maintenance activities in the shortest possible time CITATION Héc18 l 1033 (Rivera-Gómez, et al., 2018).
Once there is an effective repairs procedure performed on a machine, there are high chances that the machine will perform better than the way it was before repairs were carried out. This could be manifested by the time period that the machine operates normally before it breaks down again or even the input-output relationship of the machine in question. Quality of the output from a machine that has been repaired is also helpful to look at when determining the quality of the repairs and maintenance activities that have been done on a machine CITATION Env13 l 1033 (Environmental Protection Agency, 2013).
Though this is the case, there are times when machines do not perform better than the way they were before repairs and maintenance session CITATION NSe18 l 1033 (Sembiring & Nasution, 2018). This kind of scenario raises issues on how the repairs and maintenance exercise is carried out.
While focusing on repairs and maintenance, there is need to note the key indicators of effectiveness in repairs and maintenance department in an organizational setting. Like any other process, the quality of output of a process helps to explain whether the process was a success or not. This also applies in the case of effectiveness of repairs and maintenance department CITATION AVK13 l 1033 (Kizim, 2013).
The focus on management in this study indicates that human resources have a big part to play in the repairs and management activities. This means that the human resources need to be managed effectively to ensure that they carry out their tasks effectively. This brings into context the aspect of management proficiency CITATION Haw15 l 1033 (Hawi, Alkhodary, & Hashem, 2015).
Management proficiency mainly focuses on how effective management team is in handling organizational issues. Different organizations have different ways of handling their problems. Though different, there are common aspects that are expected to form what management proficiency is. These aspects need to be adhered to by those in management position to ensure that they realize the management proficiency levels they deserve CITATION Gli15 l 1033 (Gligor, Esmark, & Holcomb, 2015).
Common aspects that form management proficiency include commitment levels of staff and management members into ensuring that there is effective performance, financial support and or proficiency as well as the quality of information used when making decisionsCITATION Wit00 l 1033 m Gli15 (Wittman Consulting Services, 2000; Gligor, Esmark, & Holcomb, 2015). All these need to be in place for management proficiency to flourish.
Research conducted by the Development Process Group (2008) indicate that proficiency of managers is further subdivided into 12 uniquely identified set of activities and assignments that a manager has to accomplish. Feedback from those managed (the led) is also incorporated in the analysis to complete the assessment of the proficiency test. Further tests of this research were conducted in 2012 and 2014 with similar results indicating that management proficiency is composed of the aspects of nurturing the competence of those being managed (officers) to enhance career growth, ensuring that the finances are adequate to run a unit or department, ensuring that a business unit or department operates basing on valid information as well as ensuring that staff members are working well in their different duty stations and or posts. To crown it all, the aspect of fostering relationships at work between supervisors and normal officers helped to differentiate a good manager from a bad manager.
Existence of management proficiency enables good organizational performance. Having an effective repairs and management department is one way of realizing good organizational performance. This is based on the fact that once there is good performance, returns will be realized. These returns will eventually lead to employee satisfaction and enhanced employee commitment which will eventually trigger realization of organizational goals and success CITATION Kaz16 l 1033 m Dan16 (Kazimoto, 2016; Bakoti?, 2016).
The concepts of organizational performance, success and growth do not automatically connect to each other. There must be a binding force commonly referred to as leadership. In modern times, this is considered to be part and parcel of management. A good leader is expected to also become a good manager CITATION Por15 l 1033 (Porter, 2015). The reverse however, may or may not be true.
Management and leadership are blended in an organizational setting. This means that for one to become a good manager, the person is expected to possess leadership traits. Organizations fail to yield the needed performance partly because of poor management which is rooted in the poor leadership of the people put in managerial position CITATION Sam161 l 1033 (Asiri, Rohrer, Al-Surimi, Da’ar, ; Ahmed, 2016). It is therefore important to have a manager who is actually a good leader.
One of the key leadership traits is commitment. A leader is expected to give in his or her all to ensure the success of the team that he or she leads. This trait is considered to be very important in management as well CITATION Joy16 l 1033 (Cox, 2016). Though considered important, it is not a guarantee that all those in management position are also committed to ensure success of the department or business unit entrusted to them CITATION Sam161 l 1033 (Asiri, Rohrer, Al-Surimi, Da’ar, & Ahmed, 2016). This is a challenging position in an organizational setting.
In Japan, there was a creation of the concept of Total Quality Management. This concept has now spread throughout the world. The concept has been applauded to be one of the key drivers of organizational success in any organizational setting. The challenge however is, many organizations today have failed to adopt the Total Quality Management concept in their operations CITATION Alg16 l 1033 (Alghamdi, 2016). This failure exists despite the benefits that the concept brings with it.
Many organizations today are still struggling to ensure that they realize the needed organizational success. Many managerial skills and concepts are still being designed and applied with a hope that they will yield success. This journey however has not been a smooth one CITATION Gow16 l 1033 m Gin15 (Gowing & Langdon, 2016; Gino & Staats, 2015). This same scenario is existent in companies operating in Uganda.
Though Uganda is mainly composed of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), there are a few international companies that fit in the category of corporations. Like many developing countries, big corporations existent in Uganda are in the category of manufacturing companies apart from the telecoms and the banking sector CITATION Uga171 l 1033 (Uganda Investment Authority, 2017).
In a manufacturing setting, machines are very important to ensure smooth manufacturing process. Maintenance of these machines is equally important to ensure that the desired productivity levels of the machines is realized. Effective maintenance of machines meant to be used in production process helps management to be assured of constant supply of their products to the market without any hiccups CITATION Mou16 l 1033 (Mourtzis, Vlachou, Milas, & Xanthopoulos, 2016).
Effective maintenance of machines could also be affected by the financial challenges in an entity. Availability of finances attracts good quality staff to handle the technical department. The reverse is also true CITATION Gha16 l 1033 (Ghaz, 2016). Though from a financial point of view it may not require to have a full-fledged technical department in an organization, the option of having a technical person come in regularly to check the machines is helpful to ensure that they are in good mechanical condition to foster production CITATION Env13 l 1033 (Environmental Protection Agency, 2013).
Though having an effective repair and maintenance department is good, it is not always followed. This case is evident at Uganda Breweries Limited (UBL). Though they have compliant officers, cases of repairing machines that do not require repair has been noted. Improved productivity of machines after the session of repairs is also not evident at the factory. This means that the machines get repaired but they don’t reflect any improvement in the productivity levels. This therefore raises questions on the validity of the repair and maintenance exercise CITATION UBL16 l 1033 (UBL Performance report, 2016).
Looking at the validity of the exercise, the aspect of information and data comes into play. Any repair or maintenance activity is carried out basing on the need for it to be carried out. This need is hinged on information availability. Focusing on the aspect of Uganda Breweries Limited, information flow is computerized and organized. This therefore raises a question as to whether this information could be misleading or not. Considering the level of technology involved in gathering relevant data and processing it for decision making however, chances are that information is of good quality CITATION DIA10 l 1033 (DIAGEO International Supply Centre, 2010).
Uganda Breweries Limited further boosts of having a good management team with international exposure on matters of management and overall leadership CITATION UBL16 l 1033 (UBL Performance report, 2016). This therefore implies that the good management team ensures the presence of competent employees at work place and adequate financial support towards the data gathering process and overall repair and maintenance programme of the machinery at Uganda Breweries Limited. This position is however not conclusive considering the quality of repairs taking place at the company.
Inconclusive nature of the quality of management at Uganda Breweries Limited suggests that there is more to the aspect of repairs and maintenance programme at the company. This therefore necessitated this research to be conducted in order to clear the doubt.
Statement of the problem
Effective and efficient machinery is one of the indicators of a well-functioning manufacturing entity. Once these machines breakdown, productivity is affected. This therefore calls for repairs and maintenance measures to be considered in an organization. Where necessary, new machines can be procured to replace the old ones and boost overall productivity. It is therefore very important for a manufacturing entity to have good quality machinery all the time. One way to ensure this is to have an effective and efficient repairs and maintenance department CITATION AVK13 l 1033 (Kizim, 2013).
The aspect of quality of machinery can be associated with any manufacturing entity. Uganda Breweries Limited in Uganda is one of the many manufacturing entities in Uganda and world over. Management of this entity (UBL) put in place a maintenance and repairs department in their premises to ensure that all their machines are serviced and repaired well and on time CITATION DIA10 l 1033 (DIAGEO International Supply Centre, 2010). Despite these measures, the company still explains challenges of machine effectiveness even after being repaired by staff of repairs and maintenance department of the company (UBL). This is challenging to management especially those in charge of machinery and production CITATION EAB13 l 1033 (EABL, 2013).
The machines selected for repairs are sometimes not supposed to be repaired since they don’t have any fault in them. Unfortunately, productivity levels of the machines after repair remains the same or indicates insignificant change CITATION UBL16 l 1033 (UBL Performance report, 2016). This suggests that the repairs are likely not to have added value to the machines and to the overall productivity of the company. This is challenging to the management team in the repairs and maintenance department and it raises questions as to their proficiency in managing the repairs and maintenance department. If nothing is done, the situation is likely to deteriorate further which will be detrimental to the overall performance of Uganda Breweries Limited (UBL).
General research objective
The researcher seeks to establish whether management proficiency has influence onto the current level of effectiveness of repairs and maintenance programme at Uganda Breweries Limited (UBL).
Specific research objectives
The following specific research objectives shall be useful to guide this research to its logical conclusion.
To assess the relationship between employee competence and the repairs and maintenance programme of UBL
To assess the relationship between financial support and the repairs and maintenance programme of UBL
To assess the relationship between quality of data and information and the repairs and maintenance programme of UBL
To establish the relationship between management commitment and the repairs and maintenance programme of UBL.
The following research questions shall be considered in this study;
What is the relationship between employee competence and the repairs and maintenance programme of UBL?
What is the relationship between financial support and the repairs and maintenance programme of UBL?
What is the relationship between and quality of data and information and the repairs and maintenance programme of UBL?
What is the relationship between management commitment and the repairs and maintenance programme of UBL?
Hypothesis of the study
The study shall be based on the following research hypotheses;
There is a relationship between employee competence and the repairs and maintenance programme of UBL.
There is a relationship between financial support at the repairs and maintenance programme of UBL
There is a relationship between quality of data and information and the repairs and maintenance programme of UBL
There is a relationship between management commitment and the repairs and maintenance programme of UBL.
The conceptual framework is based on the fact that past researchers established that there is a link between management proficiency and organizational performance CITATION Haw15 l 1033 m Kol14 m Rul13 (Hawi, Alkhodary, & Hashem, 2015; Kolibá?ová, 2014; Rulangaranga, Joseph, & Moses, 2013). Organizational performance is considered to be a general terminology though it has its levels of specificity depending on the kind of organization in question. The measures of organizational performance also differ depending on the organization of focus. In this study, the focus is on the performance of a repairs and maintenance department (and or business unit).
Repairs and maintenance effectiveness of an entity is component of organizational performance. The effectiveness reflects the performance level CITATION Haw15 l 1033 (Hawi, Alkhodary, & Hashem, 2015). This therefore means that the repairs and maintenance effectiveness in an entity also has a bearing on management proficiency. It is basing on this fact that in this research, the management proficiency is checked to establish whether it also has impact on repairs and maintenance effectiveness of Uganda Breweries Limited (UBL). The diagrammatic presentation of this idea is displayed in Figure 1.1 below.
Attention to detail
Attitude of manager
Association with subordinates
Level of accountability
Quality of data and information
Repairs and maintenance programme effectiveness
Mean time between repairs
Mean time between failures
Attention to detail
Attitude of manager
Association with subordinates
Level of accountability
Quality of data and information
Repairs and maintenance programme effectiveness
Mean time between repairs
Mean time between failures
Figure 1.1: Conceptual framework
Source: Kolibá?ová (2014); Hawi, Alkhodary & Hashem (2015); Rulangaranga, Ntayi & Muhwezi (2013)
Explain the relationship the dimensions and relationship in figure
Significance of the study
Once this study is successfully conducted and the findings put into consideration, different groups associated with this research shall benefit in different ways.
The first group shall be the management body. These shall be able to realize that there was a challenge in the repairs and maintenance unit of the company. This will help to guarantee their support in correcting the situation.
The people in charge of repairs and maintenance will also benefit. These will be able to start doing work basing on availability of credible information for consideration in the repairs and maintenance department.
Another category of people that are expected to benefit is that of machine operators. These will be able to get good quality machinery to be used in the production process. This is because the repairs and maintenance will be done on machines that indeed need the services. Further to that, correct repairs will be carried out on those machines making them bring about improved productivity.
Justification of the study
This research is important to carry out because of the challenges existent in the maintenance programme of UBL. If the programme is not effectively review and revamped based on the findings of this research, the situation shall remain the same as it is now. This will lead to continue value reduction which is not financially viable.
Scope of the study
This study shall be carried out at Uganda Breweries Limited. This is because it is the focus of this research. The premises of this company shall therefore form the geographical focus of this research. Why UBL?
The main focus shall be the repairs and maintenance department and works of repairs and maintenance that take place in the company. Why?
The staff and systems considered in the repairs and maintenance section of the company shall also be considered as components of the scope of this study.
Though there may be a general understanding of the words and phrases used in this research, the following operational definitions shall specifically apply in this research.
This phrase shall be used to mean the capability of coming up with quality data and information for use in the repairs and maintenance department. This shall be the case since this research is focused on the activities that take place in the repairs and maintenance department of Uganda Breweries Limited. The proficiency of management therefore shall be in this very context.
Management proficiency shall further include existence of management commitment, employee competence and financial support. These shall be helpful in the realization of the quality data and information in that department.
Repairs and maintenance effectiveness
This phrase shall be used in the context of a manufacturing corporation. Effectiveness of repairs and maintenance shall therefore be based on the performance of machines and systems before and after repairs and maintenance activities have been carried out. The performance shall be measured in terms of effectiveness and efficiency of the machines in performing its duties.
Appropriateness of the repairs carried out on the machines shall also be considered to form part of the effectiveness of repairs and maintenance. Inclusion of appropriateness of the maintenance program shall also be considered.
Quality of data and information
Quality in this research shall be used to mean the value that a given set of data or information gives to an organization. To test this value, the researcher shall look at the completeness, accuracy, validity and timeliness of the data and information that is used in the department of repairs and maintenance. Once the data and or information passes these four tests, then it shall be considered as quality data and or information for the department. This shall therefore be considered to form the operational definition of ‘quality of data and information’ as far as this research is concerned.
In this research, employee competence shall mean the capacity of an employee to handle data and information for the repairs and maintenance department. The employee is therefore expected to possess the attributes of analytical ability, attention to detail, records management and technical skills as far as data and information management are concerned.
This shall mean the support that is received by the department of repairs and management from its management. This therefore shall be comprised of the remuneration component as well as the capacity to finance the budget of the department exclusive of the remuneration component. These two shall therefore be considered to explain the financial support in this research.
The management group referred to here, shall be composed of those leaders in charge of the department of repairs and maintenance. These shall therefore include the head of department together with any other person who directly or indirectly is concerned with the affairs of the department of repairs and maintenance as a leader.
Commitment of these people shall be measured by looking at the leadership styles of those in charge, attitude of managers in charge, level of association with subordinates that these leaders have as well as the level of accountability of these leaders. These have been found very useful in establishing the commitment levels of these managers.
This chapter presents a review of literature in relation to management of repairs and maintenance section in a manufacturing organization. The chapter is organized into five sections that bring out several accounts of previous researchers relating to the aspect of management of repairs and maintenance section of a manufacturing organization. Each of these sections has a subsection to clearly identify it.
Management of a department or business unit is a typical business management activity. The same applies to management of the repairs and maintenance section of a manufacturing organization. Like any other form of management, the management of the repairs and maintenance department is also done following a certain set of principles and guidelines. Theories form one of the key guidelines that management members use to make decisions in these departments CITATION ElG17 l 1033 (El-Ghalayini, 2017).
In this study, the use of management theories shall be employed to provide more insight of the problem as well as provide a framework on how it can be handled. Other theories related to management of humans and things are also considered in this discussion to provide a more informed position of the problem and the variables involved CITATION Bay17 l 1033 (Baykan & Uzunboylu, 2017).
Key theory in this discussion is the contingency theory. This theory is considered here because of what it advocates. According to this theory, different situations in a business set up require different ways of handling them. There is no single solution or model of doing things that can be used to handle every management problem in an organization. This fits well with the problem under investigation in this research. The problem indicates that there is a challenge in ensuring effectiveness in the repairs and maintenance department. This further means that there is need for new solutions to be sought to be able to alleviate the challenge. This is exactly what is advocated in the contingency theory CITATION Ver90 l 1033 m Che17 (Verkerk, 1990; Cherry, 2017).
In relation to the contingency theory CITATION Con17 l 1033 (Li, 2017), a systems theory brings into perspective the influence of the different parts of an organization in ensuring overall competitiveness in an organization. Though an employee may be invisible, his (or her) input may be of paramount importance in the overall performance of an entity. This means that the systems theory provides an insight into the need to ensure proper match of the human resources, their knowledge and competence as well as the department(s) where they operate in. This is expected to ensure effectiveness in the overall operations of an entity CITATION Spr17 l 1033 (Sprenger, 2017).
Looking at the aspect of knowledge and competence, the need to borrow a leaf from theory X and theory Y become eminent. These theories point out the fact that competence of employee cannot be separate from their personality or trait. There is therefore a need to know whether employees being dealt with belong to those described in theory X or those in theory Y. These different groups of people have different ways in which they respond to the need to work and hence require different strategies to ensure that they produce the desired output at work place CITATION Olu04 l 1033 (Olum, 2004).
Self-determination theory is also of great importance when it comes to handling employee competence. Like already pointed out in theory X and theory Y, the self-determination theory reiterates that the aspect of personal traits is good and needs to be taken into consideration when handling competence. Further to that, this theory highlights the aspect of autonomy, competence and feeling of being valued on the side of employees. These aspects are highlighted as of key importance since they are linked to the psychology of an employee. According to this theory, there is need for managers to take note of the aspects of autonomy and valuing employees to boost their levels of competence CITATION Mey10 l 1033 (Meyer & Maltin, 2010). This position is also postulated in the iceberg theory CITATION Cyn18 l 1033 (Measom, 2018).
According to iceberg theory CITATION Cyn18 l 1033 (Measom, 2018), the aspects of autonomy and value are always hidden from the surface but are very influential in the level of competence of an employee. This therefore means that if there is need to boost employee competence at work place, there is need to pay close attention to the psychology of an employee to be able to know how to push these employees into being competent at work place CITATION Ama15 l 1033 (Headlee, 2015).
Basing on the review of the different theories in relation to this study, the theoretical framework indicates that there is a strong link between employee competence and their performance at work place. This competence is further linked to the psychology of these employees which has something to do with their levels of commitment and how employees relate with their supervisors at work place CITATION ElG17 l 1033 (El-Ghalayini, 2017). Further to this, the aspect of continuous improvement in determining the best solution for a problem in an organization needs to be given serious attention as highlighted in the contingency theory CITATION Che17 l 1033 (Cherry, 2017).
In relation to the theoretical review, a deeper understanding of the concepts used in this research was sought. The conceptual review has been helpful to provide this understanding. This subsection is further subdivided into four other subsections namely employee competence, financial support, quality of information and status of repairs and maintenance.
Competence of employees is one of the most important ingredients of good performance at work place. This means that employees need to be good at what they do as far as specialization is concerned for them to be outstanding at work place. Whereas being outstanding is good, it is not recommended for it to be dominated by a few individuals in an organization. All employees need to be good at what they do in their respective departments and units CITATION Don13 l 1033 (Rulangaranga, Ntayi, & Muhwezi, 2013).
In relation to specialization, it is not expected that an employee is good in everything in an organization. There are those that are good in marketing and there are those that are good in accounting. These two have to be placed where they can produce best results. This is something that needs to be considered by human resource managers in organizations CITATION Sam15 l 1033 (Adeyoyin, Agbeze-Unazi, Oyewunmi, Adegun, & Ayodele, 2015).
Though not clearly spelt out, the aspect of employee competence is synonymous to the concept of quality. A product is considered to be of good quality from the point of view of a customer, if it can be able to perform what the customer wants the product to perform. This therefore relates to competence of employees at organizational level. Employees must be in position to fit in the big picture of an organization for such employee to be considered competent in that organization. The determination of employee competence in this context is vested in the office of the human resources manager of that organization CITATION Kol141 l 1033 (Kolibá?ová, 2014).
Though it is important to have human resource managers in organizations, the position is mainly left to established organizations and corporations CITATION Alj16 l 1033 (Aljayi, Fjer, Guennioui, & Tamek, 2016). Most small and growing entities rarely have this position. This however does not mean that the human resource function is not carried out in such organizations CITATION Osm11 l 1033 (Osman, Ho, & Galang, 2011). Most times, growing organizations vest the powers of human resources management on the managing director or the chief executive officer CITATION Vir17 l 1033 m Ose17 (Virk, 2017; Osei, 2017).
Importance of a human resource manager therefore is to ensure that competent employees join an organization CITATION Ham17 l 1033 (Hamid, Maheen, Cheem, & Yaseen, 2017). Though this is true, there are times when the aspect of influence peddling sets in and less competent employees join an organization. This puts a dent on the leadership qualities of the human resource manager of the organization in question CITATION Wor181 l 1033 (World Economic Forum, 2018).
Considering the leadership importance of a human resource manager, leadership needs to be viewed as another competence angle of an employee. Not everyone in an organization has the capacity of being a leader. This is important to consider since bad leadership of a unit leads to its underperformance compared to other units of an entity CITATION Leo18 l 1033 (Leonard, 2018). When dealing with employee competence therefore, there is need to ensure that there are right people placed in leadership positions to steer the units they lead into great heights as far as overall unit performance is concerned CITATION Mal17 l 1033 m Car14 (Malacoff, 2017; Caruso, 2014).
Looking at the different aspects of organizational performance, it is clear that competence of employees plays an important role in that performance. The challenge however has always been getting the right people to do the job. Many CEOs of organizations as well as the human resources managers will always state this as one of the challenging tasks that they have to do. This is further considered to be one of the measures of ensuring that organizational competence is realized in the long run CITATION Leo18 l 1033 (Leonard, 2018).
Some employees can join an organizations when they are competent in their specific fields while some require training. This too poses a challenge to organizations as far as employee competence is concerned. Many organizations tend to want to avoid training costs though it has sometimes been found to be difficult to achieve. This therefore makes it necessary for entities to budget for training of employees even when there is no surety that there will be any employee that will require training.
Looking at employee competence from the point of view of solving organizational problems brings into context the need for exposure of employees. It is because of this reason that most organizations prefer promoting employees at lower levels to fill in gaps at higher levels rather than hiring someone new. This however may not be the case in organizations that offer similar products or services such as banks and brewing companies. In these companies, the concepts are the same regardless of the fact that an employee has been in an organization or has been poached from a competitor. Whichever the case therefore, an employee will be in position to solve the problems of that organizations.
Focusing on the main components of employee competence, the aspects of technical knowledge and records management come out clearly. It is considered to be technical knowledge because of the professionalism involved in the work supposed to be carried out. All departments in an organization are considered to have this component of professionalism which forms the backbone of the concept of specialization. The concepts of professionalism and employee competence can therefore be considered to be inseparable.
In the context of developing countries however, employee competence is not considered in the same way. Some people are considered to be competent because they are known by their bosses while others are considered to be competent because of the outstanding performance that they have at work place CITATION Wor181 l 1033 (World Economic Forum, 2018). This is considered to be double standard at work place which needs to be checked especially considering that employees get paid to do the job.
Financial support is directly related to competence of an employee as well as the level of commitment of that employee. Following from the competence levels of employees therefore, there is need to note the importance of there being enough financial support to ensure that employees continue being catered for financially CITATION ODo12 l 1033 (O’Donnell, Jayawardana, ; Jayakody, 2012).
Employees are catered for financially by getting paid for what they do. Though employees are expected to love their jobs, the primary goal of an employee getting a job is to get money and improve his or her life from the financial point of view. This puts the aspect of finance the main consideration and in essence the appropriate reward for the time and effort that a person puts in to perform in a given organization.
Though there are many forms of payments, the basic that every employee expects is the direct pay. This is commonly referred to as salary for permanent employees and wages for non-permanent employees. There are even those paid fees when they perform professional work on a one-off basis. These are called consultants or specialists depending on the field of specialization they belong to.
From the legal point of view, this is one area that is considered controversial. Different people work in different organizations but do the same job and end up being paid different remuneration. This is a common phenomenon in the private sector requiring that the employers discuss with their potential employees on what they can afford to pay them before they commence work. The discussions are thereafter documented in a contract to which both the employer and employee append signature to CITATION Int161 l 1033 (International Labor Organization, 2016).
Having a contract is a good thing but not honoring it is not. Many employees have reported cases of not receiving their salaries in months. In developing countries, these cases are common in the public sector as well as the private sector. In such a scenario, the organization in question is considered to be financially strapped and heading towards financial distress. If it is a private company, closure of business is eminent unless the management gets a new investor. The situation is however different when it is a public company since public companies depend directly on government.
The possibility of not paying employees presents a good case for financial support. Employees need to be financially supported to be able to deliver their services. The financial support should however go beyond paying for the services offered. Management of a given organization needs to ensure that there is enough money to cater for administration costs as well. Office work definitely needs to be financed. This requires money from the coffers of the organization in question.
From the management point of view, financing administration costs requires efficient budgeting process. All costs need to be documented in time and proper estimates made. It is basing on this that the financing sources can be highlighted and considered at management level. This is an important thing to do in an organization to ensure that the activities on an organization are fully supported with minimal glitches in operations.
Good as it is, it is not obvious that all managers will consider it necessary. The aspect of goal congruence needs to be examined thoroughly by each manager at individual level to ensure that the best position in goal congruence is realized. This is expected to enable the managers to appreciate the need to balance between personal gains and organizational gains using office facilities. This is however lacking in many organizations today leading to little financial support towards employees and organizational activities. This is something that managers of companies need to look into to ensure operational success of their entities.
2.3.3Quality of information
Good planning from the financial point of view ensures continuity of an organization. In this continuity, information forms an important component. All departments of an organization need information. This information needs to be communicated in time to ensure that no mistakes are made.
Information flow in an organization enables employees to know current events in their workplace. Issues about clients (or customers) are made known through good information flow. Information helps managers to know machines to replace because of their obsolescence and which to replace because of mechanical breakdown. Changes in organizational management is also considered to be information that needs to be communicated. Generally therefore, information forms a blood line of an organization. When mishandled, catastrophic results may be the outcome.
Information management specialists indicate that good information is that provided on time. This therefore means that late information is useless since it cannot be helpful when things have already gone wrong in an organization. It may however serve as a learning point to those involved that there is need to provide timely information to enhance effective decision making.
Though supplied on time, chances are that it may not be factual. This therefore brings into context a possibility of one supplying timely information which is false. Considering a decision to hire a candidate for instance, the recruitment manager may be requested to provide background information about a candidate. This information may be provided on time but it may be wrong portraying as to whether that candidate is too good or too bad. Once the team hiring bases on this information to make their final decision, chances are that the candidate may be hired when he (or she) was not supposed to be hired. The same may be the case when considering the candidate being rejected by the recruitment team.
Information verification is therefore important in an organizational setting. This helps avoiding mistakes which could have otherwise be committed basing on wrong information. This however does not mean that the information should not be provided on time. It needs to be provided on time and at the same time be valid and complete. At organizational level, this needs to be considered as a very important thing to do to avoid possible losses that may lead to business closure.
2.3.4Status of repairs and maintenance
Repairs and maintenance is one of the key activities that take place in an organization. Both, service and product based organizations have cases of repairs and maintenance expenses. The items used in generating revenue in these organizations are the ones that need to be subjected to repairs and maintenance from time to time to ensure optimal functionality and reduce redundancy at work place.
Repairing and maintaining machinery at work place could be done internally or could be outsourced. In either case, the ultimate goal of having a machine in perfect health is realized. Though this is the case, there are some managers that prefer in-house repairs and maintenance department and others prefer outsourced services. One of the key determinants of this has been pointed out to be the financial attachment to each decision. There could however be other reasons that could prompt a manager to make either of the choices.
Focusing on the financial component, it is recommended that the repairs and maintenance service is maintained as a department in an organization when the tendency of machine breakdown is eminent. This is always the case when an organization is highly dependent on that machinery or set of machineries in its production and revenue generation. In this case, it is likely to be very expensive to have a contractor paid per job to do repairs and maintenance and yet there are high chances that the breakdown cases are going to be many. This position may however be dependent on the availability of space to house that department together with other factors that management of a given entity may consider relevant when deciding as to whether to have the department in-house or to outsource it.
Whether outsourced or considered as an in-house department, people in charge of repairs and maintenance need to ensure that they carry out the right repairs and maintenance activities. This means that the repairs should be carried out to ensure that the said machine regains its productivity efficiency before breaking down. This has a bearing on the expertise of the person responsible to carry out repairs and maintenance work.
The scenario of repairs and maintenance can be likened to that of a medical doctor or a surgeon. Once the surgeon performs the right surgery, a patient recovers quite fast. There are cases however when a person performs a wrong surgery or the right surgery in a wrong way. This can only be possible if the surgeon is incompetent in what he (or she) does or it is deliberate move to incapacitate the patient. Though the latter is unethical in the medical field, it is likely to happen especially when the surgeon is not ethical.
The aspect of ethics could also extend to the discussion of repairs and maintenance. Those in charge of repairs and maintenance could deliberately carry out a wrong procedure to allow a machine regain its competence though for a short time. This is mostly the case when the service is outsourced and the person in charge of repairs and maintenance is paid per job carried out. This means therefore, the technician will be able to get another payment for an assignment which could have been completed perfectly in the first visit.
Though the scenario is common in the outsourced services, it is possible that the same could happen even when the repairs and maintenance department is in-house. Considering the possibility of collusion between the vendor and the technician in-house, an independent machinery audit may be a solution. This therefore means that there is need for the internal audit department to extend its mandate into examining the quality of the machines from time. It may however be argued that the audit department is mainly financial. Though this is true, the position may not hold water considering that the financial accountability component is directly linked to value for money activities in an organization. This is mainly referred to as the value for money audit that is common in many organizations. This way, possibility of saving a company from losses arising from collusion may exist.
2.4Management proficiency, employee competence, financial support, quality of information and status of repairs and maintenance.
In an organization setting, the performance of repairs and maintenance department is directly linked to the performance of every other department in an organization. This follow the systems theory of organizational performance. Basing on this theory, all departments, units and activities in an organization are interrelated. Collapse of one section renders other sections inefficient. This therefore means that management of an organization needs to detect possible challenges in every department that may lead to a possible inefficiency in the overall organizational performance and handle it in time.
Focusing on the repairs and maintenance department in an organization, it is important for the status to be established from time to time. Considering that the department links many others that depend on its efficiency as far as productivity is concerned, it is important for it to remain efficient most of the time. This however requires management to play their part as leaders of an organization.
Taking charge as leaders, there is need to consider that there are two kinds of employees. There are those that have self-drive and exercise their self-efficacy. There are also those that need to be reminded of what they are supposed to do. This therefore means leaders in an organization need to take note of this diversity in an organization and apply appropriate strategies to get them (employees) to work. This is an importance aspect of employee competence that needs to be taken into consideration at supervisory and managerial levels.
Taking note is good though it may not work all the time. There are people who have self-efficacy but they also have an element of rebellion in their behavior especially when they realize that they do not get the same treatment like the other employees. This is a common phenomenon at work place. This therefore means that whereas it is true that the nature of employees and how they respond to tasks helps managers and supervisors in handling them, there is need to be aware of existence of a component of outlier in this behavior monitoring. This brings to light the position presented in the contingency theory.
Following what is advanced in contingency theory, management proficiency comes to light as one of important ingredients in ensuring that there is smooth running of activities in an organization. With proficiency of managers, the approach to organizational challenges will keep being adjusted with an aim of arriving at the best solution possible. This however requires money to be spent especially when the needed solution is to be obtained through outsourcing.
From the financial point of view, use of money in handling business challenges requires that the selected solutions to be budgeted for in prior periods. This is considered to be one of the surest ways of having those solutions to be spent on. In essence therefore, budgeting is considered to be an avenue of ensuring that the needed organization activities get the needed financial support from management. With the needed financial support, activities in an organization are expected to be carried out successfully leading organizational success CITATION Tra17 l 1033 (Foster, 2017).
Organizational success therefore needs a combination of management proficiency, employee competence, proper flow of quality information as well as up and efficiently departments. One of the key departments that needs to be efficient in an organization of a manufacturing nature is that of repairs and maintenance. This helps to ensure that the needed machinery in the remaining departments involved in production are up and running efficiently and effectively all the time.
2.5Summary of the literature review
The review of literature was conducted with an intention of establishing previous accounts relating to the variables of study considered in this study (current study) together with possible association of these variables. Basing on the review conducted, there is an established link between management proficiency, management commitment, employee competence, quality of data used in an organization, quality of information flow and efficient functioning of repairs and maintenance department of an organization. All this collaboration in an organization setting has been found to have an impact on the overall organizational performance. Basing on this revelation, appropriate objectives for the current study were formulated with an aim of establishing whether the association identified in the review of literature could be found in the operations of Uganda Breweries Limited.
This section presents the key issues that the researcher shall consider when carrying out this research. These key issues are the aspects of research design, study population, sample size; selection, sampling technique ; procedure, data type ; source, data collection as well as data analysis. These are explained here to indicate exactly how this research shall be carried out.
The study will adopt; cross-sectional research design. A cross-sectional research design collects data in order to make inferences about a population of interest at a certain point in time. The selection of this design for this research is because the researcher wants to focus at a particular point in operations of Uganda Breweries Limited when the challenges of repairs and management department started. This therefore qualifies to be studied using a cross-sectional design. Considering the nature of the variables involved being both qualitative and quantitative, a qualitative and quantitative design shall also be used to accompany cross-sectional research design.
Qualitative research is about exploring issues, understanding phenomena and answering questions (Neuman, 2006). This approach utilizes data-gathering techniques that are focused on the significance of observations made in a study rather than the raw numbers themselves. The researcher will use this because qualitative research enables one gain insight into people’s attitudes, behaviors, value systems, concerns, motivations, aspirations, culture and lifestyles (Sarantakos, 2005). Further details on how this shall be used are provided in the section of research methodology.
Quantitative research helps in collecting the required information from a wide number of respondents. Unlike the qualitative research, quantitative research is mainly used when there is need to get general information about something. They are indicative in nature.
Both qualitative and quantitative design shall be considered in this study because of the need to get findings from both views, qualitative and quantitative. This shall further reflect the variables that shall be treated following the qualitative approach and which shall be considered following quantitative approach CITATION CRK04 l 1033 (Kothari, 2004). Further details about this in relation to the how it is considered in this research are documented in the section of data collection.
Neuman (2006) defines population as the specific pool of cases that a researcher wants to study. This population could be finite or infinite depending on the kind of research one wants to carry out. Emphasis is however put on having finite population sizes for purposes of minimizing the effects of bias in the overall research exercise. For this study, the population shall be a finite one.
The study population shall include machine operators and supervisors. The machine operators shall further be divided into technical operators and technicians of the machinery. The technical operators are the ones who run the machines on a daily basis whereas the technicians are the ones who repair the machines in case they have any fault.
The population of the study shall be comprised of 104 respondents. These are employees of Uganda Breweries Limited (UBL) who are directly involved in production at the company. They therefore use the machines in the production activities of the company or they supervise (manage) those who use the machines CITATION Hum18 l 1033 (Human Resource Manager – UBL, 2018). They are also perceived to have knowledge about the subject matter under investigation. Basing on the human resource records, there are 20 supervisors and 84 machine operators that shall be involved in this study.
Table 3.1: Distribution of population of the study
Category of respondent Population of the study
Machine operators 84
Source: Human Resource Office – Uganda Breweries Limited (2018)
3.4Determination of sample size
A sample in research refers to a small proportion of population that is selected to be considered in research instead of dealing with the whole population. The sample has to be carefully selected to ensure that it is not very big to make research difficult to handle and not too small to distort the results that could have otherwise been obtained from the whole population. Basing on this requirement, a scientific approach was considered in the determination of the sample size in this study. The sample size was determined by ensuring that it limits the possible sampling error to 0.05 with a statistical sampling proportion of 0.5. Confidence limit of 95% was also considered in the determination of this sample size CITATION Placeholder1 l 1033 (Krejcie & Morgan, 1970).
Basing on the metrics considered in the determination of sample size in this research, a sample of 85 respondents was considered appropriate from a population of 104 respondents at Uganda Breweries Limited. The selection of this size was based on the sampling table by Krejcie and Morgan (1970) which follows the same principles of ensuring sample size quality (Confidence limit = 95%; Population proportion = 0.5; Error term = 0.05). The sample size of 85 respondents shall therefore be considered appropriate in this study with a hope that it shall be useful in enabling the researcher get the needed findings from the study.
3.5Sampling technique and procedure
In this study, a stratified sampling design shall be used to select respondents from population to form a sample. Stratified sampling is a type of sampling technique where by the total population is divided into smaller groups also known as strata in order to complete the sampling process. The strata is formed based on some common characteristics in the population data. In this case data collection is faster and there is improved accuracy and quality of data. This design has been considered because not all the 85 employees considered in this research have the same knowledge of the machines and how they operate. The population is therefore heterogeneous as far as this study is concerned. The inclusion of the respondents shall therefore be based on the distribution presented in Table 3.2.
Table 3.2: Distribution of population and sample of the study
Category of respondents Population of the study Sample of the study
Supervisors 20 19
Machine operators (officers) 84 66
Total 104 85
Source: Human Resource Office – Uganda Breweries Limited (2018)
Further to the distribution in table 3.2, there are some respondents that will be selected for qualitative purposes. A purposeful sampling approach shall be considered in the selection of these respondents. This approach shall enable a researcher get key informants that shall be considered in the study. These key informants shall be part of the 84 respondents earlier selected but they shall be selected to give more insights into the issues considered in this research.
3.6Data collection methods
The questionnaire approach has been selected for this study because of its ability to get data from a large group of respondents in the shortest period of time. The ability of the respondents to read and right further makes the questionnaire method appropriate for this study.
Specifically, the questionnaire shall be formed of closed end questions to enable the respondents provide their opinions to a researcher through ticking the most appropriate response. This is considered to be a fast way of getting information from respondents and hence expected to enable the researcher go through the data collection exercise fast.
In relation to the questionnaire technique of data collection, there is need to get detailed information about the situation existent in Uganda Breweries Limited in relation to this research. The detailed information is mainly in relation to getting a deeper understanding of the concepts of management proficiency as well as repairs and maintenance program effectiveness. This information shall be obtained by dealing with the key informants to this research. An interview technique of data collection shall be considered for this purpose.
Interview technique has been selected for this purpose because it helps to give room to a respondent to give as much information as possible. Though it has a limitation of a number of participants to interview because of the time factor, it has a power of unlocking information that can never be realized through the questionnaire approach. This is the main reason why this study shall consider using interview technique in the process of data collection in addition to the questionnaire technique CITATION Con12 l 1033 (Phellas, Bloch, & Seale, 2012).
3.7Data collection instruments
Instruments to be used in the data collection process reflect the methods selected for the data collection process. In this research therefore, the instruments shall be questionnaire form as well as the interview guide (protocol).
The questionnaire form shall be used in the execution of the questionnaire method of data collection. The interview guide shall also be used in the execution of the interview method of data collection.
The instruments of data collection shall be developed basing on the content of this research proposal and with aim of getting useful information that can be used in responding to the research questions and objectives of this study. Use of experts to validate the instruments and ensure the reliability of the instruments shall be considered.
3.8Data Quality Control (validity and reliability)
Before conducting the data collection exercise, the researcher shall test the data collection tools to ensure that they are valid and reliable. Reliability and validity coefficients shall be computed to test the extent to which the tools (instruments) are valid and reliable.
Validity refers to the quality that a procedure or an instrument (tool) used in the research is accurate, correct, true, meaningful and right. Validity therefore, implies that the research tool (instrument), research procedure (techniques) and research findings (report) are comparable with results of other studies.
Validity test shall be conducted by considering expert opinion. Both, the questionnaire form and interview guide shall be taken to a minimum of 5 experts for review. These are experts in the field of management as well as machine operations similar to those existent at Uganda Breweries Limited. The views of these experts indicating the degree to which questions can be accepted for use in this study shall then be given codes in form of numbers that will later be used to compute the content validity index. A validity index of not less than 0.7 shall be considered to make a conclusion that a given set of questions is valid for use in this study.
Reliability refers to the ability of an instrument to produce consistent results. The researcher will employ more effective forms of reliability, for example through an increase in the variability of perspectives in research and by setting up a list of possible errors or distortions. Reliability also depends on clarity of instruments given to those using the instruments. The research therefore will use clear instructions to answer the questionnaires because the clearer the instructions, the higher the reliability of the responses.
A Cronbach Alpha Coefficient shall be computed basing on the questionnaire responses to test for reliability. If a coefficient of 0.7 or any other coefficient above it is obtained, then a given set of questions shall be considered to be reliable for research purposes. This shall be based on pilot study that shall be conducted to test the tool before conducting a wide scale data collection exercise.
Triangulation approach shall further be considered when handling reliability of interview method. Testing the results of a pilot from interview approach to check their association with those from questionnaire shall be considered to check the concept of reliability.
3.9Procedure of data collection
The researcher shall first organize all those going to help him in the process of data collection (research assistant) and educate them on what they are going to do. Then permission shall be sought from the respondents expected to respond to the interviews and questionnaires. After obtaining the permission, the researcher shall set a target of how many responses to be obtained per day as well as a plan to have a successful data collection session. This shall be followed by the actual data collection process in the field.
For purposes of planning, a maximum of 3 interviews shall be carried out in a day. The number of interviews to be conducted during the data collection process shall follow the data saturation principle. This therefore means that the researcher shall continue with the interview exercise until that time when no new information can possibly be obtained from the key informants in this research. At this point, the interview exercise shall stop.
Questionnaires shall be issued to the selected respondents to be filled in a period of not more than 3 days. Before filling in the questionnaires, the respondents shall receive instructions on how they are expected to fill in the questionnaires. The short period of 3 days is considered here to ensure that the questionnaires are given the attention they deserve by the respondents. After the 3 days, the respondents are expected to return the questionnaires to the researcher through the research assistants.
To ensure effective data collection exercise, the researcher shall handle the interview exercise. The data collection exercise shall be given to the research assistants since it is not as technical as the interview exercise. This arrangement is expected to enable the researcher get quality data from the respondents.
3.10Data processing and analysis
The activities of data cleaning and coding shall be carried out before the actual data analysis takes place. This is important to ensure that data considered for the analysis phase is complete and of good quality for consideration in the analysis phase.
Two types of analyses shall be considered in this study; analysis of qualitative data and analysis of the quantitative data. Quantitative data shall be analyzed using inferential statistics. These shall mainly be comprised of correlation and regression analyses. These analyses shall be carried out to respond to each of the research objectives and questions formed in this study.
In order to get a better understanding of the findings relating to the research objectives, more information about the variables in question is needed. This shall be obtained from analysis of qualitative data. Analysis of qualitative data shall be done by considering the themes that shall be obtained from interview responses. Thematic analysis of qualitative data shall therefore be carried out.
Ethical considerations form an important part of a research study. They help to indicate whether a researcher followed ethical principles or not. Following ethical principles in research helps to increase the value attached to a given research study. This is good for both, the researcher and the fraternity of researchers CITATION CRK04 l 1033 (Kothari, 2004).
Considering the value attached to the ethical principles in a research study, in this research, the following ethical issues shall be considered;
In this research, the researcher shall practice objectivity and confidentiality. This is expected to enable the researcher get good and unbiased data for the research.
The researcher will seek permission from the management of Uganda Breweries Limited to collect data before engaging in the data collection process. In line with this, consent from respondents shall be sought before engaging them in the data collection exercise.
All works used in this study shall properly be cited and referenced for acknowledgment purposes. This is important to avoid cases of plagiarism. Specifically for this study, APA style of referencing shall be considered.
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