Marxist Education Theory and its application in Nepali context A formal set of ideas that is intended to explain why something happens or exists is theory

Marxist Education Theory and its application in Nepali context
A formal set of ideas that is intended to explain why something happens or exists is theory. In the assignment work, the education theory is the base of the questionnaire. In this research project, I will be basically talking about Marxist theory of education, involvement of other theorists in different aspects of education and most importantly, its practical implementation. The major purpose of this research was to know how those theories can be applicable in the context of Nepal. After going through various secondary sources, it has been clear that Marxist theory of education is based on communism and socialism aspects. Likewise, the other theorists involved were John Dewey and Stuart Hall. Among them, John Dewey developed Pragmatism and Progressivism theory and Stuart Hall opined that only the one who is well known to the society is literate in true sense.
According to the Karl Max, history is created by revolution or a conflict. In society mainly there are three classes. They are Elite class or the higher class, Bourgeoisie or middle class and Proletariat or the lower class. Marxists theory in education means it is not a way to analyze only economic relations but also those values and viewpoints created by industrial capitalism that affect ostensibly nonpolitical endeavors such as education, religion, literature, and other cultural products and practices. Another philosophy of Marx is Historical philosophy also, known as historical materialism .The main theme of this philosophy is that the society is just a material and every change occurring in the society through the action of the men by themselves is known as historical change. For education Marx says that the history of Hitler to existing society is the history of class struggle. Free man and slave, Patrician and Plebian, lord and serf, guild master and journey man in a world oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another carried on an uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight. So the revaluation will be appear when there is conflict between upper class people and lower class people and there will be development of education if there is majority of upper class people there will be favorable education system for capitalism, but when there is a majority of lower class people then there will be favorable for lower class people who are the base of industries, so the education system will change it is the demand of the time.
John Dewey (1859–1952) is a Philosopher and initiator of Pragmatism and Progressivism. According to Dewey students can learn by natural process where teacher are only facilitator but not a instructor. Also, he quoted that education is not preparation for life, education is life itself. Progressive education is essentially a view of education that emphasizes the need to learn by doing; Dewey believed that human beings learn through a hands-on approach. This places Dewey in the educational philosophy of pragmatism. Pragmatism believes that reality must be experienced, from Dewey’s educational point of view this means that students must interact with their environment in order to adapt and learn. Similarly, Stuart Hall, gives more importance for popular culture. The popular Arts (1964, Coauthored with paddy Whannel ) which deals with the complexities of popular culture and its multiple iteration and manifestations. Importantly this book was rooted in Hall’s experience as a teacher attempting to understand the range of cultural resources and influences young people bring to the classroom. For Hall and Whannel, popular culture is an important site for the young in many ways a more important site than traditional school setting. They wrote,
Their symbols and fantasies have a strong hold upon the emotional commitment of the young at this stage in their development, and operate more powerfully in a situation, where young people are tending to learn less from established institutions such as family, the school, the church and the immediate adult community, and more from one another(1964, P.276).
In the context of Nepal, we also have two types of class and two types of education. Thus, so as to make everyone entitled to quality education here also should be educational revolution in the ways given by John Dewey and Stuart Hall which is applicable in the context of Nepal. The students centered approach in education is effective on teaching learning process. Open education also plays important role to enroll the students who are unable to take their formal education. To expand open education there should be expansion of online facilities all over the Nepal so that every Nepalese will be educated resulting in the educated society who can make a great approach to educate and develop the nation. Thus, the ideologies and theories of the two theorists Stuart Hall and John Dewey has turned out to be the material for the development of the Nepal in various aspect.