Medical Hand Washing Steps:
1. Remove hand Jewellery and watches
2. start wet hands
3. Use liquid soap with running water
4. wash hands vigorously including backs of hands, wrists, thumbs, between fingers, and forearms for a minimum of 10 sec each section.
5. Rinse hands well with running water
6. Thoroughly dry hands with a single use clean dry material, e.g. Clean disposable paper towels
7. If hand-controlled taps are used, turn the taps off with a paper towel.
8. Do not contaminate hands by turning off the tap with clean hands or forearms.
Surgical hand washing
1. Clean subungual areas with a nail file.
2. Start time with ABC song repeat 2 times.
3. Proceed to scrub the arms, keeping the hand higher than the arm at all times
2.list three clinical moments when hand hygiene should be performed with soap and water, rather than an alcohol-based hand rub.
1. Always wash hands while contact in blood and body fluids.
2. Help to protect patients from infectious agents (including their own) entering their bodies during procedures; and
3. protect healthcare workers and the healthcare surroundings from acquiring patients’ infectious agents.
Berman, A., Snyder, S. J., Kozier, B., Erb, G. L., Levett-Jones, T., Dwyer, T., … ; Parker, B. (2014). Kozier ; Erb’s Fundamentals of Nursing Australian Edition (Vol. 3). Pearson Higher Education AU.
3.list three non-clinical moments for hand hygiene.
1. Before touching a patient
2. Before a procedure
3. After a procedure and after touching a patient’s surroundings
4.Outline the hand care guideline related to:
a. Maintaining finger nails:
1. Keep nails short and trim them often.
2. Scrub the underside of nails with soap and water (or a nail brush) every time you wash your hands.
b. Removal of jewellery and watches: we need to remove the all ornaments while during the procedure/ or on job
c. Maintenance of intact skin:
• Again, and again hand washing procedure our hand makes a dry, so we need to apply a soft care to protect hand.
• Incidences of both observed skin irritation and measured moisture content after repeated use on hands.
d. Management of cuts and abrasions:
• Apply direct pressure on the area.
• Clean and Protect
• Clean the area with warm water and gentle soap.
• Apply an antibiotic ointment to reduce chance of infection.
• Put a sterile bandage on the area.
5.Explian the scope and use of the following PPE in accordance with organizational policies and procedures:
• protect your hands for the infections
• Remove gloves after caring for a patient. Do not wear the same pair of gloves for the care of more than one patient
• Protect skin and/or clothing
• protect mouth nose
• Protect respiratory tract from airborne infections agents.
• protect your eyes for the infection.
6.Explain the roles of an EN in managing blood or body fluid spills in accordance with organizational policies and its procedure. (consider including care after body exposure, spills removal, signage)
If a client bleeds during a procedure (either accidentally or more than expected during a skin
• we put on clean disposable gloves.
• place a clean dressing on the wound and apply pressure to stop the bleeding
• dispose of soiled dressings into a waste bin
• clean work area surfaces (e.g. benches, chairs or floors) that have been soiled with
blood or other body substances, as soon as possible, using water, detergent and a
• dispose of cloths used for wiping up blood
• remove gloves and dispose of them
• wash hands thoroughly
If we as an operator are cut or pricked, or are exposed to a client’s blood or body
Substances then we are applying gentle pressure, and wash with soapy water
• if the exposure does not involve a cut or puncture, wash with liquid soap and water
• if your eyes are splashed, rinse open eyes several times with water or normal saline
(gently but thoroughly)
• if blood or other body substance gets in the mouth, spit it out and then rinse out the
mouth with water several times without swallowing the water
• if clothing is soiled, remove clothing and shower if necessary
• report the incident immediately to your manager or employer.
Kozier, B., Kozier, B. B., & Du Gas, B. W. (1967). Fundamentals of Patient Care: A Comprehensive Approach to Nursing. Saunders.
7.list the roles and responsibilities of an EN while handling and disposing sharps, contaminated and clinical waste in the health care setting.
• place waste into a container, which is smooth, impervious and has a suitable lid
• empty the container regularly into your main waste bin
• use of a disposable liner can reduce the need to clean the container.
• take care to prevent injuries during the disposal of sharps. The potential for
transmission of blood-borne diseases is greatest when sharps are handled
• dispose of used sharps in accordance with the Environmental Protection (Waste
Management) Regulation 2000. That is, dispose of the used sharp after use into a
rigid-walled, puncture resistant container and seal or securely close the container
• dispose of sharps immediately to protect operators, staff and clients from injury. Place
sharps disposal containers as close as practical to where a procedure is undertaken so they can be easily accessed by the operator
• ensure sharps containers are not accessible to visitors, particularly children
Arshad, N., Nayyar, S., Amin, F., & Mahmood, K. T. (2011). Hospital waste disposal: A review article. J Pharm Sci & Res, 3(8), 1412-19