Motivation is a strong force. Employees are driven through encouragement and reward to achieve challenging goals. They can also be driven to be dishonest when they experience unfairness or are threatened by unobtainable goals (Robbins & Judge, 2018). Employee motivation has always been a main issue for organization managers and leaders. Employees who are unmotivated are likely to spend little to no effort in their work, avoid the workplace as much as possible, performing a lousy job or producing low quality work, and leave their companies if given the chance to. On the contrary, employees who feel motivated carry out their work to the best of their ability and are likely to be productive, innovative, persistent, and have a sense of direction, turning out high quality work that they willingly take on to attain their goals (Ganta, 2014).
Motivation is one of the most frequently researched topics in organizational behavior, and it still remains a problem and a struggle within organizations to this day. In one conducted survey, 69 percent of employees reported wasting time at their jobs every day, and almost a quarter said they waste between 30 and 60 minutes each day (Robbins & Judge, 2018). Unmotivated/motivated employees have a significant impact on the productivity, retention and performance of an organization.
Organizations strive to be successful. Therefore, despite companies’ size or market, they aim to retain the best employees, who recognize their important role and influence on organizational effectiveness. By understanding the theories, needs, values and expectations that motivation emerges from, organizations must learn how to overcome employee motivation challenges by creating a solid and definite relationship with its employees and direct them towards task attainment (Ol Dobre, 2013).
Reasons for the Problem
There are multiple theories, factors, framework and model concepts as well as how a job is structured that greatly influence motivation and effort within individuals (Robbins ; Judge, 2018).
Hierarchy of Needs
A theory known as Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is the most well known theory of motivation that has received wide recognition and was validated by some research. This theory hypothesizes that there are five levels of needs for humans. These needs are Physiological, which includes thirst, hunger or shelter, Safety-security, which includes protection and security from emotional and physical harm, Social belongingness, which includes acceptance and a sense of belonging, Esteem, which includes internal factors such as self respect and a sense of achievement and external factors such as status and recognition, and lastly, Self-actualization, which includes growth and self fulfillment. Each level of need becomes dominant once another level is satisfied (Robbins & Judge, 2018). According to Maslow, you wouldn’t be able to motivate someone with positive feedback, which is an esteem factor, if their basic work stability or job security in the workplace aren’t met.
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation factors
There are many intrinsic and extrinsic factors that contribute and influence an individual’s sense of motivation. An example of a motivational factor problem is an employee’s self-determination. When an employee feels like they have no control or autonomy over their work. If an employee feels that doing a task is an obligation rather than an activity that is done with their own choice, it causes an employee to become demotivated to do their job (Robbins & judge, 2018). Another intrinsic reason is ones self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is a person’s belief that they are capable of successfully performing a task. An employee’s sense of capability affects their perception, accomplishment and motivation. Employees with low self-efficacy tend to set comparatively low goals for themselves and may exert less effort when learning and achieving complicated tasks, because they are uncertain if their attempts will lead to success and are likely to give up when problems arise (Lunenburg, 2011). is Individuals lack intrinsic motivation when they do not seek enjoyment, satisfaction or interest in the tasks that they do at work. Similarly, individuals lack extrinsic motivation when they do not obtain any expected rewards or incentives when they perform specific tasks.