NAME Gerlande Paul

Exercise # 16

DF reveals many various numbers in a certain statistical sample. Knowing the df can lead you to knowing the t-distribution table if the data is important due to the given alpha value. Df for this study is 174 dues to the information stated 176 subjects and two means are compare as well. To find the df you take away 1 for each mean toward each subjects.

The Buzzy group stDev is 8.25 +/- 1.51, the control group age is 8.61 +/- 1.69. To located the difference in each mean(t-test), you use the statistical analysis. It is appropriate to use because the t-tests is use to compare the means from two data sets to tell if it is important to take a note of. Different from the z-test is that it usually looks at proportions.

T value is -1.498 and p value is 0.136. This mean that there is no notable different with both mean groups.

Variable is measure in either continuous or ordinal scale; Sample is random; a normal distribution happens due to the plotted data; sample size is sufficiently large; homogeneity of variance is also assume.

The variation of children in each study represent that this group is independent. Each test was independent because if it was dependent than each child would get each treatments.

The null hypothesis has no different in self-report pain measure within the Wong Baker Faces Scale. It is also rejected due to the t value is -6.498 and the p value is less than 0.0001.

There is no need to use a Bonferroni due to it purpose is to solve the problem of having multiple hypotheses when being tested. The study doesn’t have a lot of hypotheses so it isn’t needed.

The result variable came from the Parent report index of pain seen by kids. This is what parents predict their child’s anxiety level to be in each group. This make there to be important difference with both the Buzzy group and the control group.

I believe there remains an expected finding in each t values. The uses of Buzzy make the kids ignore the real insertion process and ease their self-reported pain on two different rating scales.

One benefit for patients using Buzzy is that it eases the pain for children who are on IV insertion. This intervention could make the procedure easier for both patient and practitioner due to many kids scared of needles.

Exercise # 17

Variables were measured on a continuous scale, the independent variables involve with 2 match pairs, there was also no important outliers to take note of and the distribution is normal in the study.

2-week washout period mean that the participants have to undergo a two week period before trading group to exceed the effects from a low or high aspartame diet. It is important to do so to prevent effects the participants to have the same subject in two experimental group.

Due to the t-test value being 3.4, it is important to take a note of. This is due to the value being above critical value. P -0.002 is under the alpha level of 0.05.

Aspartame had no important effect on mood(irritability) was the null hypothesis. This hypothesis was denied due to the p value being 0.002 and the t test being 3.4 making the mean value important.

The t value for depression helps reveal the greatest relative difference between high- and low -aspartame diets. The t value is important to note due it being at 3.8 with a p value of 0.001. This also help for us to see the greatest relative difference due the t value being the largest out of all the measured values.

The t value determined the extent of the different relative to the variation in the sample population. The larger the t value, than the bigger the difference between sample population.

The results of this study reveal that a high aspartame diet has negative effect on depression. This is clinical important to know because aspartame is commonly located in baking sodas. This could be an explanation on why some people may have some form of depression or depressed mood.

The lowest t-value is 1.5 for measures of working memory. This explain how the difference among each group relative to the variation within this sample to not be great enough to have importance.

These studies are important because aspartame is needed in the diets of many people. This sweetener has properties that are upsetting, and more study are being develop in order to know other negative effects. From www.healthline.com/health/aspartame-side-effects ,aspartame can have harming effect to people who are suffering from phenylketonuria, causing tardive dyskinesia, diabetes, and even cancer.

These studies are not full ready for implementation in practice. To be fully ready, it requires more controlled studies with higher population sample sizes to make wider conclusion.