Natural Antioxidant Effects of The fruits of the Quran comparison with Butylated Hydroxytoluene on Egg Yolk Oxidation Resistance Afsaneh Mohajer1

Natural Antioxidant Effects of The fruits of the Quran comparison with Butylated Hydroxytoluene on Egg Yolk Oxidation Resistance
Afsaneh Mohajer1,2, Parisa Sadighara1,
1Department of Environmental Health, Food Safety Division, Faculty of Public Health Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran
2 Student’s Scientific Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Corresponding Author’s E?mail:
Abstract
Antioxidants are commonly used in food products to prolong their shelf life. Regarding the potential risks of chemical antioxidants, people’s tendency towards natural antioxidants is growing. Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) is a kind of Synthetic antioxidants that are used in food for human consumption. Methods: in this study, we prepared alcoholic Quran fruit extract, including six groups: Group (1) as control group (BHT), group (2) grape, group (3) date, group (4) olive, group (5) fig and group (6) pomegranate extract. Then, we investigated the antioxidant effects of these fruit extract in compared with BHT in egg yolk. The oxidative stability of samples was assayed with TBARS method. Result: our finding showed the level of lipid oxidation in pomegranate extract wasn’t significant between control groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: In this study, the using pomegranate extract is recommended instead of using artificial antioxidants but more studies to find alternative BHT is also needed.

Key words: natural antioxidant, BHT, lipid oxidation
1. Introduction
Free radicals are a kind of atom or molecules with one or more unpaired electrons. The unpaired electron results in increasing chemical reactions by enzymatic or nonenzymatic process (1). activity of free radicals causes variety of problems in the body such as, diabetes, heart failure, brain damage, muscular problems, early aging, eye injuries, weakness of the immune system. The production of free radicals can naturally be created in the body or by external factors such as X-rays, ozone, cigarette smoking, air pollutants, and industrial chemicals (2). One of the common problems in the food industry is the rancidity of fats due to the free radicals. In general, Lipid oxidation in foods is one of the most important factors in food degradation during processing, storage and distribution through adverse effects on the aroma, color, nutritional value and toxicity of these compounds. One of the most effective ways to delay or preventing the oxidation of lipids is the use of antioxidants. Antioxidants play an important role in the food industry (3). There are two kind of Antioxidants that can be used as a synthetic or natural Antioxidants that can improve the quality and shelf life. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), and propyl gallate (PG) have been widely used in food industry (4). Although Synthetic antioxidants can preserve the foods from degradation and improve the shelf life, they have adverse effect on health. BHT and BHA antioxidants in high doses are carcinogenic (5). Todays, with growing awareness of people about artificial additives, people tend to be more natural food additives (6). natural Antioxidants from plant and fruits improve properties and food value. natural Antioxidants preventing from cancer, heart disease and Increased immune system (7). The aim of this study is measuring oxidation resistance to replace the fruit extract as the natural antioxidant rather than BHT Synthetic antioxidants.

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2. Materials and Methods:
2-1 Material
The fruits of the Quranin including fig, pomegranate, date, olive, and grape was obtained from local market in Tehran. Fruits got dried out in ambient for one month. Butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) was obtained from Sigma.

2-2 Preparation of samples
Two grams of each fruits were used and alcoholic extract was obtained from dried fruits. Egg was washed and separated egg yolk. Then fruits extraction was filtered from filter paper and maintained for examination. Antioxidant BHT was used as control group. Cupric sulfate was added to samples and remained for two days in environment for peroxidation to measure it.

2-3 Assay fruits extraction and Antioxidant BHT power on the oxidative stability in egg yolk
One of the lipid peroxidation index is Malodialdehyde(MDA) levels therefore, we used TBARS method in this study. MDA reacts with thiobarbituric acid (TBA) as a thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) to produce a red colored complex which has peak absorbance at 532nm (8). First, TCA10% (trichloroacetic acid) was mixed with samples and centrifuged. Then, TBA was added to the supernatant and heated. The absorbance of the supernatant was measured at 532 nm. The values were expressed in nmoles MDA, using a molar extinction coefficient of 1.56 × 105 M-1 cm-1(9).
2-4 data analysis
The evaluation was made by comparing groups. The difference more than 95%(P=0.05) was considered significant. The values are presented as mean ± SD.

3. Results and discussion
The results of present study are given in Table 1. The data values were expressed as mean ±SD. This table shows results of the oxidative stability of fruit extract and Butylated Hydroxytoluene on Egg Yolk Oxidation Resistance. There was a significant difference among grape, data, olive, fig compare to control respectively (P=0.005, 0.007, 0.008, 0.003) but the level of lipid oxidation wasn’t significantly different between the sample of pomegranate and control group (BHT). Table 1 shows the lipid oxidation level in egg yolk.

Table 1. The level of lipid oxidation
97790112001500
Samples lipid peroxidation
9779004064000
Grape 5.8±0.5
Date 5.44±0.3
Olive 3.5±0.18
Fig 5.4±0.34
Pomegranate 3.36±0.76
*BHT 2.6±0.11
9779007874000
*Control group.

According to the results, pomegranate extract had high oxidative resistance rather than other, in the other hand, the lipid oxidation inhibition effect was highest (P ; 0.05) in compared to other juices. Also its function was similar to BHT antioxidant. Oxidative damages of foods based on unsaturated fatty acids is a main reason for reducing the shelf life of food products. Besides, free radical endanger human health especially in aging (10). one inhibiting ways of oxidative stress in food industry or in our body system is maintaining antioxidants balance (1). In this study, the antioxidant properties are respectively Pomegranate, Olive, Date, Fig, Grape.

It is common in food industry adding synthetic antioxidants although it is effective methods, it’s not safe for a long time. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole have recently been reported to be unsafe for human health (4). Therefore, we should test different ways to alternative synthetic antioxidant. Since ancient times, antioxidant properties of fruits and vegetables has been referred.one of the most important fruits is Pomegranate. Pomegranate has a lot of bioactive compounds and considering to be high in antioxidant activity (11). Hence, pomegranate extract is safe and harmless for human health.

Regarding previous reports, Comparative efficacy of pomegranate juice, pomegranate rind powder extract and BHT as antioxidants in cooked chicken patties have indicated that pomegranate juice, pomegranate rind powder extract was effective for use as a natural antioxidant, specially pomegranate rind powder extract (12). As pomegranate compounds is rich in phenolic that have antioxidants role, we can say that phenolic groups are responsible for breaking free radical chains of oxidation by giving a hydrogen atom (13).

4. Conclusion
According to the results of the study, it can be concluded that the Pomegranate extract can inhibit lipid oxidation due to its ability to increasing shelf life. Besides, chemical additives trigger adverse effects during long-term so, by increasing knowledge consumers prefer foods that made from natural additives. Pomegranate extract is source of natural antioxidants that can be used alone or accompany with BHT to elimination or decline of BHT in food industry.

Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflict of interest
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