Political System: Tuvalu’s political system is constitutional monarchy. It is part of the commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as the head of state. Constitutional monarchy is defined as a monarchy governed country according to a constitution that limits and defines the powers of the monarch, based on the definition given on Collins Dictionary. Enele Sopoaga has been the prime minister of Tuvalu since August 5th, 2013.
Involvement with UN: In the year 2000, Tuvalu became a member of the UN. Tuvalu protested against the 2001 failure of the United States to sign the Kyoto agreement on greenhouse gas emissions. Tuvalu defended the agreement as extremely important to the survival of Pacific Island nations such as Tuvalu, and also extremely crucial to the environment. Tuvalu also proposed a new protocol to replace the “Kyoto Agreement” that was used at that time during the conference at Copenhagen, Denmark in the year 2009. This proposal includes of having more cuts on global emissions by countries in development in order to slow down global warming.This proposal was supported by small island states, like Grenada, Trinidad and Tobago and also a few African states, but it was being protested by 15 other countries, including China and India.
A description of the climate and weather patterns in the country: Tuvalu has a tropical climate. There are two seasons: The first one is the wet season, from November to April, and the second one is the dry season, from May to October. Thunderstorms occurs all year round. The temperature on average of Tuvalu is about 28 degrees celsius. Tropical cyclones affect Tuvalu between November and April, on average of one cyclone per season. Tuvalu is currently sinking due to the rise of the sea level caused by global warming.
Major Internal Migration Patterns: Migration is common in Tuvalu. The household survey indicates that a total of 3,901 movements of migration had occurred during 2005 to 2015. Based on the report on migration of Tuvaluan Citizens by the UN on 2016, overall, around 43 percent of the total migrants were migrating internally. In the whole of Tuvalu, the destination for internal movements are 56 percent to Funafuti, 21 percent to Vaitupu, and 23 percent to the other islands of Tuvalu. 12 percent of the people migrated because of the environment, thirty percent of them migrated because of education, 27 percent migrated because of medical and other reasons, and 31 percent migrated because of work reasons.
Major External Migration Patterns: Overall, 54 percent of the total migrants migrated externally. In the whole of Tuvalu, 63percent migrated to Fiji, 16 percent migrated to New Zealand, 5 percent migrated to Australia, and 16 percent migrated to other international places. Five percent of the external migrants migrated because of the environment, 52 percent migrated because of education, 14 percent migrated because of medical or other reasons, and 29 percent migrated because of work reasons.
Major Civilisations: The first settlers on Tuvalu were Polynesians. This settlement happened when the Polynesians migrated from Samoa, Kiribati and Tonga into the Tuvalu atolls. However, the island of Nui was mostly settled with Micronesians from the Gilbert Islands prehistorically. Now, most of the populations on Tuvalu are still Polynesians.