1 Surya Prakash Reddy, B., 2 Suggala V Satyanarayana, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, JNTUCEA, JNT University, Ananthapuramu. [email protected]@gmail.comAbstract: Wastewater refers to the water of no further use, consisting 99% water and 1% waste. Grey water and black water, only types of Wastewater have separate method of treatment. Grey water can be more efficiently and widely used even with a minimal treatment than compared to its counterpart. Six Locations were taken into consideration at Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Ananthapuramu with around 3000 students. All the locations were selected as such that most of properties were covered of JNTUA for purpose of designing a treatment plant. Samples were collected and analysed for three seasons Rainy, Winter and Summer. A total of around 26 parameters like pH, COD, BOD, EC, Nitrates, Magnesium etc., Rainy and Winter grey water shown similar properties where summer parameters were a little different. Being a drought zone, there is a need for savage of Surface and Underground water. Water Quality Index is a very useful and a peculiar rating to potray the overall quality status of water in a sole term that is helpful for the preference of appropriate treatment technique to meet the concerned issues which shows the need for the basic treatment of this grey water.WQI results show that the most polluted water are of summer samples while the least were of the rainy season. Treated water can be used for the watering of plants, construction work and toilet flushes in and around the campus.

Keywords: Ananthapuramu, Greywater, JNTU, Recycle, Reuse, Treatments and WQI.

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Ananthapuramu district is one of the four districts of Rayalaseema Region and is the largest with respect to area among the 13 districts of the bifurcated Andhra Pradesh. The district is economically backward and chronically drought affected. Ananthapuramu district lies between North latitudes 13° 40′ and 16°15′ and between East longitudes 70° 50′ and 78° 38′. The district occupies the southern part of the State and is bounded on the north by Bellary district of Karnataka State and Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh, on the East by Cuddapah and Chittoor districts of Andhra Pradesh and on the South and West by Karnataka state. The average annual rainfall of the district is 535 mm, which ranges from nil rainfall in February and March to 129 mm in September. September and October are the wettest months of the year (Central Ground Water Board report for Ananthapuramu).

With the increased water demands and changing climate patterns water shortages have become a special focus issue. Ananthapuramu is a severe drought prone region and it is featuring continuously in the government list of severe drought hit areas from past few decades. This makes in turn the need of the hour to save the already available water and use it in a wise manner which leads for an idea of grey water conservation. The easiest and most efficient method for reducing potable water use is to conserve water by using less of it. Water conservation is an easy and affordable mechanism to save water. Recently, many people even started using greywater for toilet flushing, fighting fires, irrigation, washing cars, and other possible uses. Using greywater for agricultural purposes is a preferred method for reducing the use of potable water because it is cost effective and has relatively low risk of exposure. Grey water reuse is not at a common practice in India as well in Ananthapuramu. More expensive and complicated methods for greywater reuse include treating greywater to a safe level for other non-contact uses. The more the expense the lesser the efficiency, so, treatments should be made effectively efficient and the alternative sources include rainwater and greywater 1.

Wastewater generally is combination black water and grey water. Greywater is produced from various domestic processes from our day-to-day life and comprises 50-80% of residential wastewater 2-4. Total annual utilizable water resources of the country are 1086 km3which is only 4% of world’s water resources 5. Grey water is distinct from black water in the amount and composition of its chemical and biological contaminants. Basically, any water, apart from toilet wastes, draining from a household is grey water. Even though this drained water contains impurities like grease, food particles, hair, it may still be suitable for reuse after some basic treatments. Reusing grey water work for basically two purposes as it decreases the amount of freshwater needed for supply to a household and moderates the amount of waste water entering septic systems, Grey water is a domestic waste water that is collected from dwelling units, commercial building and institutions of the community6. It is primarily spent water from building water supply to which have been added to the waste effluent of bathrooms, kitchens and laundry 7 Total water requirement of the country in mid-21st century is estimated to be 1450 km3 which is higher than the contemporary availability of 1086 km3. Various options including rainwater harvesting and wastewater reuse will have to be considered to meet the anticipated deficit 8.Grey water has encouraging potential as a resource that can be used to supplement or replace potable water for the purpose of irrigation. However, there are many limiting state regulations and health concerns associated with its use preclude grey water from being used as efficiently as possible. 2,3,5,9,10.

Totally, six locations were considered in the campus for evaluating the characteristic of grey water in the campus. Names of the collections points are Ellora hostel (gents), Shilpa hostel (ladies), JNTU Examination branch, Ellora Kitchen (Vegetable ; Rice wash water), Ajantha hostel (Detergent wash water). The points are in all the different directions of the university. Main sources of water supply to the university is from Satya Sai water pipe line and there a quite a few number of bore wells around the campus which will be used when required. Natural water available around Ananthapuramu are through rivers from which the university doesn’t receive the water directly. Ananthapuramu ground water contains fluoride and also nitrates which make it compulsory for treatment. Water quality analysis was performed in similar context to the quality tests conducted at Tummalapalle, Andhra Pradesh 11.

Water was collected around three seasons namely Rainy, Winter & Summer. Samples were collected for Rainy season during August, winter in December and summer in April. Locations were selected in such a way that all kinds of grey water were tested like wash water, kitchen waste, wash basin waste and similar kinds.

Water were also collected on the basis of weekdays-weekends and Mornings-Evenings, where average of both were considered for characteristic error reduction. As the plumbing works were very old it was a challenging ask to collect separated water from the waste water but grey water was collected as it is defined and few traces of urine might also be mixed which have to be taken into consideration for the treatment.

A total of 26 parameters were evaluated but only 15 among them were considered for the Water Quality Index. The 26 parameters are namely Dissolved Oxygen, Fluoride, Phosphate, Chloride, Sulphate, Nitrate, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Ammonical Nitrogen, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Oil & Grease, TDS, Conductivity, Salinity, pH, ORP, TSS, Phenolphthalein Alkalinity, Methyl Orange Alkalinity, Hydroxyl Alkalinity, Carbonate Alkalinity, Bicarbonate Alkalinity and Total Hardness. All the methods were analysed by standard method for water and wastewater in the environmental laboratory 12.

Raw tap water samples were also collected from the places of greywater collection and were combined as a single unit for characteristic evaluation. All the parameters which were tested for the grey water were also tested for the raw tap water.

A. Results of Raw Tap water samples

Raw tap water samples results shown that many of the parameters were under below the permissible and were safe for the usage and from the report of Central ground water board suggested that there were presence of fluoride and nitrates in the groundwater replicated in the test shown over here.
Table I. Characteristic evaluation of Raw Grey Water Samples

B. Results of Rainy & Winter Samples
Among the three seasons samples tested, rainy and winter samples are almost similar in values except little fluctuations that are comparatively negligible. All the parameters are very high compared to their permissible limits and there is serious need for the treatment to use it for the potable purposes
C. Results of Summer Samples
Summer samples were quiet more polluted comparatively to the other two samples. There were variations in pH, which alters with the variation of temperatures. Temperatures range to almost 45oc-47oc. Hardness was also reduced because of the heat. Total suspended solids were also very high because as the temperature increases the thickness of grey water also increases.
Table II. Characteristic evaluation of Rainy & Winter Grey Water Samples

Table III. Characteristic evaluation of Summer Grey Water Samples

A Water Quality Index (WQI) is a means by which data available regarding water quality is summarized for reporting to the public or to the necessary authority in a consistent manner. It is similar to the UV index or an air quality index. Based on the available data, determination of WQI was done for the assessment and suitability of grey water for potable purposes by considering water quality indices. Physio-chemical and heavy metals parameters such as Dissolved Oxygen, Fluoride, Phosphates, Chloride, Sulphate, Nitrate, Calcium, Magnesium, TSS, TDS, Conductivity, pH, Total Alkalinity, Total Hardness were considered. The Calculation of WQI was made using weighted arithmetic method. WQI was determined individually for various seasonal category as well as for the raw water.
WQI=?(qnWn) / ? (Wn)
1) qn =100(Vn-Vio)/ (Sn- Vio)
2) Wn= K/Sn
3) K= 1/{1/S1 +1/S2 +……+1/Sn}
4) Vio = 0 for all other parameters except the parameter pH and Dissolved oxygen (7.0 and 14.6 mg/L respectively)
5) Sn = Standard permissible value of the nth parameter.
6) Vn = Estimated value of the nth parameter at a given sampling station.

Table IV. WQI for Raw Tap Water samples

Table V. WQI for Rainy Water samples

Table VI. WQI for Winter Water samples

Table VII. WQI for Summer Water samples

Table VIII. Status of water based on WQI
The rating of the water quality using the weighted arithmetic method
Water quality Index Level Water quality status
0-25 Excellent water quality
26-50 Good water quality
51-75 Poor water quality
76-100 Very Poor water quality
>100 Unsuitable for Drinking
Application of WQI is a valuable method in assessing the appropriateness of water for various constructive uses. This study has shown that WQI is a powerful, yet a simple tool, that can be used to accurately to determine the quality of the water based on Table VIII. The water quality thus tested is been divided into varied categories listed in the Table VIII. WQI also helps us understand what level of treatment is required for a particular location in a particular season. All the grey water samples were above 100WQI which were unfit for the potable uses and were required immediate attention for treatment. Raw water sample tested were also not completely fit for ready usage but of a poor water quality. However, the greywater will be treated through filtration methods in the later stages and a separate study has to be carried out. Selection of treatment methods have to be done economically and the water treated are mostly used for agricultural purposes and construction works, thereby usage of naturally available economical process should be preferred. Raw water which is supplied in the residences are also of poor water quality which have to be taken a proper basic treatment before supplying into the residences in order to be safe corresponding to the health of the students.

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