Rails are joined by either welding or mechanical connections

Rails are joined by either welding or mechanical connections. Rail welds create a fusion joint for connecting rails, closures, bonded insulated joints and other rail components in the track. These welds become an integral part of the running rail and non-welded rail joints use mechanical connections (joint bars and fastenings) to connect the two rails. These discontinuities produce different type of static and dynamic stresses on the running surface .These stresses on the rail head produce weakness on the joint and rail end. They cause different type of failures at the rail joint compare to the normal rail. With based on my country rail truck and other country experience3.