Submission Front Sheet Assignment Code

Submission Front Sheet
Assignment Code: DET2
Programme:Pearson BTEC Level 5 Diploma in Education and Training
Unit 2: Teaching, Learning and Assessment in Education and Training
Unit reference number: H/505/0912
QCF level: 4
Credit value: 20,
Guided learning hours: 65
Module Tutor:Oluwafemi Emmanuel Esan
Email: [email protected]
Learner’s Statement Of Authenticity
Learner Name: _AROGUNDADE_Caleb Sunday
ID Number:23483___________________
I certify that the work submitted for this assignment is my own. Where the work of others has been used to support my work then credit has been acknowledged. I have identified and acknowledged all sources used in this assignment and have referenced according to the Harvard referencing system. I have read and understood the Plagiarism and Collusion section provided with the assignment brief and understood the consequences of plagiarising.

Signature: ___________________Date: ___/___/_____

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Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u TASK 2 (UNIT 2) PAGEREF _Toc503780597 h 3Introduction PAGEREF _Toc503780598 h 3WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO IDENTIFY AND MEET THE INDIVIDUAL LEARNING NEEDS OF LEARNERS? PAGEREF _Toc503780599 h 3CONCLUSION PAGEREF _Toc503780600 h 5TASK 5 PAGEREF _Toc503780601 h 5HOW OWN PLANNING MEETS THE INDIVIDUAL NEEDS OF LEARNERS PAGEREF _Toc503780602 h 5MEETING THE INDIVIDUAL PLANNING NEEDS PAGEREF _Toc503780603 h 5Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc503780604 h 5TASK 6 PAGEREF _Toc503780605 h 6Purpose and assessment outcome PAGEREF _Toc503780606 h 6’As part of the three observed teaching practice sessions, select and include an example of at least ONE different assessment type and method for each session’. PAGEREF _Toc503780607 h 7TASK 7 PAGEREF _Toc503780608 h 9Introduction: PAGEREF _Toc503780609 h 9What is communication? PAGEREF _Toc503780610 h 9What is a Theory? PAGEREF _Toc503780611 h 10Theories of Communication PAGEREF _Toc503780612 h 10Jean Piaget PAGEREF _Toc503780614 h 10Basil Bernstein PAGEREF _Toc503780615 h 12Lev Vygotsky PAGEREF _Toc503780616 h 13Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc503780617 h 13TASK 8 PAGEREF _Toc503780618 h 14Produce a written analysis of the effectiveness of the range of teaching approaches you have used in your own area of specialism in meeting the individual needs of at least three different specific learners. PAGEREF _Toc503780619 h 14Introduction. PAGEREF _Toc503780620 h 14
TASK 2 (UNIT 2)IntroductionInitial Assessment
This is the process through which a tutor ascertains a learner’s general understanding. This gives the tutor the opportunity of knowing the approach to adopt in the teaching process. The process is usually undertaken at the beginning of the programme. The process may reveal other pre-requisites for the learner’s success in the programme. Usually, this process is adopted so that a tutor may know what the learner would be looking towards achieving at the end of the programme. The process will clearly identify salient areas where the student needs an assistance. This can be likened to analysing the learner’s areas of strength as well as weaknesses. In all cases, the tutor must ensure that every student is given equal chance to make progress in the given area. This process may commence from the moment a student’s application is being considered and subsequent assessments will take place as the learner progresses in his chosen area of specialisation. Michelle Waldron.

Identification of individual’s learning requirements ensures inclusive learning is achievable with relative ease. Once the tutor is able to identify what level the learner is, it will be easier to project the learner’s learning requirements and how to meet them. It gives the tutor the opportunity of knowing what quantum of motivation the learner needs and how to set about towards achieving them. The ultimate result is the creation of learner-centred approach which will invariably lead to meeting the learner’s individual needs.

Initial and diagnostic assessment gives the tutor the opportunity of knowing about the past of a learner. By so doing, it is easier to engage the learner with a view to enhancing his knowledge. Through this process, new and wider skills are developed. In addition to this, the tutor is able to identify what motivates the learner. Also, the assessment paves the way for the identification of goals which the tutor can assist the learner in working towards achieving. The cumulative effect of these is that the specific needs of the learner are ultimately met which is the target. The learner is therefore able to progress through the learning process without difficulties.

In order to make an effective use of initial and diagnostic assessment in agreeing individual learning goals, it is imperative that the learner’s prior achievements have been identified during the course of the initial assessment. As a follow up to this, it is desirable that the learner’s current knowledge and skills are built upon. Also, during the course of doing this, it is necessary that any knowledge or skills gaps are adequately addressed. The tutor must ensure that the speed employed through this process is commensurate to the individual learner’s needs.

WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO IDENTIFY AND MEET THE INDIVIDUAL LEARNING NEEDS OF LEARNERS?An initial assessment of skills level of learners through the initial and diagnostic assessment process ensures easy and accurate evaluation of a learner’s capabilities and capacities. It is therefore important to identify and meet the individual learning needs of learners for the following reasons.
First and foremost, it affords the teacher the opportunity of knowing as much as possible about the needs of every learner. Furthermore, since the teacher is not likely to have met the learners before, an initial diagnostic assessment is necessary to assess every learner’s needs before the commencement of the class. For a tutor, it is important to have a realistic impression of the individual peculiarities of every learner which they are most likely to bring to the class. An assessment undertaken prior to the commencement of a class session naturally affords the teacher the opportunity of knowing the capabilities and limitations of every student in relation to the prospective learning. Once a teacher is equipped with this information, it becomes easier for him to make provision for every learner’s necessities plus other wants. The moment this has been taken care of, a teacher will be in a position to draw up a lesson note that will guarantee inclusiveness and safe atmosphere which will help students to accomplish their ambitions without segregation. It is the right of every student to expect that he or she will get education of the highest quality suitable to his or her wants and desires in a safe environment that is devoid of health and other hazards. (2)
In a nutshell, the importance of identification and meeting the individual learning needs of selected learners cannot be overemphasised.
Each tutor is expected to hold the belief and understanding that their learners must be given the opportunity to have access to education as well as aspire for greater things from their learning process. Of equal importance is the fact that the tutor should bear it in mind that he will be coming across students with varying learning needs during their career. The only distinguishing factor is that some students learn and catch up fast while others may be slow. Also, they will teach both able and disabled students. As a result of this, it becomes imperative that a tutor finds out and meet the peculiar needs of every student equally. We shall now look at reasons for identifying and meeting the needs of learners during the course of our teaching exercises.

1. Qualitative Achievement
A classroom is usually comprised of students with varied and diverse needs that may militate against their ability to learn. In view of this, once a teacher finds out their challenges and devices a way to combat them, students learn with relative ease. This is what equality is all about.
2. Talent Development
Naturally, needs in the classroom setting are always positive. Young learners use classroom as an avenue for skills understanding, but the tutor has enough experience to know what skill or talent that a student has. Invariably, both talent and skills will be needs requiring development. Upon the identification of these by the teacher, he provides conducive atmosphere to have them.
3. Motivating Factor
Once the learning needs of individual students are provided, this boosts their morale and also serves as a source of encouragement. Not all students can benefit from a situation whereby all students are put together with uniform instruction. As a result, whenever a tutor makes an individual learning plan available, it assists the students in understanding the subject that is being taught. Once a student discovers that a teacher is ready to support him, he becomes more interested in his or her education or as the case may be. 4. Organisation of Classroom Activities
The moment a teacher is very conversant with the individual needs of the learners, he will find it easy to plan and organise the classroom activities with a view to knowing how to attend to all of them. For example, the teacher will know the structure that the time-table will take, allotting times for each activity such as group activities, individual teaching, counselling and other general activities. In a nutshell, every activity that takes place in the classroom is aimed at meeting individual learning needs of the students. The inevitable result is that every student would have his needs met.
5. Classroom Setting
To enable a teacher achieve a good organisation of the classroom, it is desirable that the individual habit of each student is identified. Where a teacher discovers that some students deserve personal attention than some others, he may ensure that such students sit closer to him. Also, students having sight problems can be allowed to sit very close to the black board. Other classroom arrangements would be based on individual needs of the students.

It is therefore imperative that teachers identify the needs of every learner with a view to fining ways of meeting them. This gives learners the opportunity to feel included and therefore comfortable in the class. This will naturally be a product of very conducive atmosphere for learning which has been created by the teacher. (3)
CONCLUSIONFinally, identification and meeting the individual learning needs of learners is as important as the knowledge that a teacher is endeavouring to impart on the learners. Once a teacher identifies the dynamics of the requirement of every learner, the process of teaching becomes simplified and every learner feels catered for without discrimination.
TASK 5HOW OWN PLANNING MEETS THE INDIVIDUAL NEEDS OF LEARNERSIntroduction
Initial and diagnostic assessment was employed in each of the observed sessions in order to get familiarised with the students. This also ensured closeness which naturally opened the door for me to develop a good relationship with the students. Through this process, it was easier to know the specific interests as well as the skills of the students. Once interests and skills are identified, it is easier to map out the necessary and appropriate strategy towards achieving the set goals which is meeting the individual learner’s needs.

Identification of specific learning needs and areas of strength acts as a catalyst towards meeting individual learning needs. It ensures knowledge of students learning targets and the exact teaching and learning procedure to be adopted in achieving them. Through initial and diagnostic assessment, it is easier to map learner’s future progress. Through this process, the tutor knows the expected task and how to meet the necessary requirement.

MEETING THE INDIVIDUAL PLANNING NEEDSIn view of the fact that my class is composed of students having different needs, it becomes imperative that I ensure that my planning meets with the expectation of every learner in my class. For an effective teaching and learning plans, there must be an introductory statement to the subject. Also, the students must be engaged in learning those activities that ensure that they comprehend the subject being taught. The students must also be given the opportunity of a feedback process. As a result, a tutor must know the areas of strength as well as weaknesses of every learner with a view to helping them develop their skills and talents. Gravells and Simpson
ConclusionFurthermore and in conclusion, the importance of differentiated instructions cannot be over-emphasised in an attempt to meet the individual learning needs. A teacher must always bear in mind that students are not always the same and as such they learn in different ways. This has been my approach. This has been my approach in each of my observed teaching sessions. I have equally found the approach to be very effective in an attempt to meet the learners’ individual learning needs. (5)
TASK 6Purpose and assessment outcomeMethod of Assessment Purpose and Assessment Outcomes
Written Examination Students may be asked to write on a given topic with appropriate specifications in terms of length and style in an examination setting. With this, the tutor is able to properly assess the strenght and weaknesses of the student. (Assessment Outcome).

Tests This gives tutors the opportunity of knowing the learning status of a student and what scope the tutor needs to work on. The major side effect is that a student may perform well in a test and go to sleep thereafter.

Multiple Choice Questions This is used to assess the learner’s understanding of a given topic by providing answers to given questions with only one of the answers being the correct one. This enables the tutor to determine the extent to which the learner has understood the subject.

Assignments Through this process, learners are able to work under a free atmosphere. It gives the tutor the opportunity of knowing the capability of the learner. The only concern here is that the originality of the work presented by the learner may be questionable.

Formative Assessment This is normally used for the purpose of monitoring classroom activities. It is also enables the tutor to get himself updated about such activities. It is usually conducted at the beginning of a learning session. This will give the tutor the opportunity of knowing what each learner requires during the course of learning. This is because of difference in individual learning needs and preferences.

Practical Observation This involves physical supervision of a learner’s work in order to appreciate the learner’s knowledge and areas of possible assistance.

Reflection Cultivation of reflective culture affords a student the opportunity of evaluating his or her activities and to recognise those areas where they can perform better as well as areas where they need to improve upon. A student can through this medium improve on future assignments either as a student or an employee. This they can do by performing to the optimum in those areas where they are strong as well as putting more efforts in aspects that require improvement. (7)
Portfolio Portfolio as a form of assessment comprises of the learner’s work records and other materials a student has produced during the course of a program. The outcome is that a student is able to monitor his own level of knowledge acquisition in a systematic order. In addition to this, it gives room for proper feedback.

Journals This is another very useful means of assessment. Learners may be asked to write what they think or feel about either themselves or teachers or even the school environment. It is a means of extracting information from learners about how they honestly feel about their learning environment as well as course content.

Questions and Answers Questions and answers session can be used to assess a learner’s knowledge. The tutor goes about this by working alongside the learners and asking them questions about their work that he observes. Their response would show whether they have acquired knowledge commensurate to their learning or otherwise.

Question and Answers as a Method of Assessment
During the course of my observed teaching practice session on ‘Law Making and the Legal System’, I made use of the Questions and Answers method of assessment. Bearing in mind the fact that the students did not have a prior knowledge about the topic, I made use of the contemporary events in the UK Parliament to bring the topic as closer as possible to the students. At the end of the session, I asked the students questions on the topic and it was evident from their reactions that they did understand what I have taught them.
Also, when I was undertaking one of my teaching practice sessions on Delegated Legislation, reflection was another method of assessment that I used. I made use of classroom scenario to bring the topic very close to the students as much as possible.

Finally, when I was taking another teaching practice, I tested the students in order to know their level of understanding of the topic. I asked the students questions which they answered satisfactorily.
Assessment Method
When I was taking my first teaching practice, I made use of Questions and Answers in form of formative assessment for the purpose of determining the level of the students and what needed to be done to ensure proper understanding of the topic. In www.preservearticles.com, (9) it was opined that the approach is very useful. By making use of the process, it is easier to determine and gauge the level of understanding of a student in relation to any topic. This approach gives room for inclusiveness. A tutor must ask questions and earners should not be prevented from asking questions. A teacher must not be ashamed to own ip if he does not know a particular topic. All that he has to do is to detail the students to look for the appropriate answer in available materials. He may also elect to fish out the requisite answer on his own. Nobody is a repository of knowledge and this includes teachers. The teacher should ask the students probing questions which will engender deep thoughts on the part of the students. It is not impossible that a student may not be able to answer a particular question, such a question is put to another student to attempt. It is instructive that a teacher must attend improvement courses and seminars on regular basis in order to ensure self-improvement.
The effectiveness of this method of assessment lies in the fact that it is suitable for all purposes. In other words, it can be of general application. Apart from this, it helps learners to express themselves. Students who otherwise feel shy in expressing themselves are able to speak in class. Also, this method of assessment makes it easier for me to identify what a student needs and how to accomplish it. Ultimately, it becomes easily deployable in the absence of any other suitable method of assessment.

Reflection
I used reflection during my second teaching practice. Reflection is about looking back at what you have done, how you did it and with the benefit of hindsight what you will do differently if the occasion presents itself again.
Test
The final assessment method that I made use of is Test. Experience has shown that short tests over a short period of time are more effective form of assessment rather than long ones conducted over a long period periods of time. Once I am done with my teaching exercises, questions are asked relating to the subject taught. Whatever response that I get from the students will indicate whether they understood the subject taught or not. In all cases, meeting the individual learning needs is of paramount importance.
Conclusively, the ultimate aim of adopting these assessment methods is to ensure that the students individual learning needs are met. This is because a classroom will definitely be composed of different students with different learning needs and none must experience discrimination or alienation in any form.

TASK 7’Individual Research into Different Theories of Communication and the Impact on Learning’.

Introduction:What is communication?Communication may be defined as a means of passing information from one person or group of persons to another. There are a plethora of definitions that can be ascribed to communication. However, any proper definition must include the passage of information from one person or group of persons to another. A communication does not become effective until the receiver hasbeen able to properly process the information, comprehend it and is able to respond to the information appropriately and effectively. There are three main types of communication. These are written, verbal and non-verbal. Just as the name indicates, a written communication is any information that has been reduced into writing. Examples are letters, reports, e-mails, text messages, charts, magazines, newspapers, adverts, websites etc. Verbal communication on the other hand is usually in form of spoken words, utterances and or expressions. This may also be described as oral communication. This is as opposed to non-verbal communication which includes the use of body language, dressing and appearance, hand gestures, stance, signals, facial expressions, etc.

Whatever mode of communication is adopted by a teacher, it is imperative that the teacher ensures that the student understands the message that is being passed across. He may do this by asking questions intermittently with appropriate feedback from the students. A complete quietness without students’ participation and or response should be a signal to the teacher that the students may not be following during the course of delivering his lessons. m
What is a Theory?A theory is a fact-based route towards explaining things. It must have passed through some stages of tests before it becomes acceptable as proof of the phenomenon. It ‘is a contemplative type of abstract or generalizing thinking or the results of such thinking. Depending on the context, the results might for example, include generalised explanations of how nature works. Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence…..It deals with the nature of knowledge itself and how humans gradually come to acquire, construct and use it. His theory is mainly known as developmental stage theory’. Wikipedia. In other words, the world around children does play a major role in their understanding of the world.

Theories of CommunicationThere are different kinds of theories of communication. ‘The study of communication and mass media has led to the formulation of many theories: structural and functional theories believe that social structures are real and function in ways that can be observed objectively; cognitive and behavioural theories tend to focus on psychology of individuals; interactionist theories view social life as a process of interaction; interpretive theories uncover the ways people actually understand their own experience; and critical theories are concerned with the conflict of interests in society and the way communication perpetuates domination of one group over another’ Kalyani Suresh (2003). We shall now look at the works of some theorists in relation to communication. The cognitive and behavioural theories will be our focal points.Jean PiagetIn his theory of cognitive development, he postulated that infants traverse four stages of mental metamorphosis. He not only focuses on understanding the process of acquisition of knowledge by the children but also the comprehension of the nature of intelligence. He postulated that they are actively involved in knowledge acquisition as well as make observations as they learn about the world. During the course of their interaction with the world, they progressively take active role in learning process as well as make observations as they learn about the world. During the course of their interaction with the world, they progressively add fresh knowledge, build on the existing one and make use of views previously held by them to acquire fresh knowledge. (14) Through his personal observation of children’s developmental stages, he came up with ‘four stages of cognitive development’ for children. These are as stated below:
‘The Sensorimotor Stage
Ages: Birth to 2 Years
Features:
At this stage, a child’s knowledge of the world is achievable by motion and reaction to something that comes into contact with their body. They also understand the world around them by tasting, beholding and attention. They also acquire the knowledge about what is called ‘object performance’ which is an ability to know that an object is in existence even though it is kept away from them. They also see themselves as different from human beings and things within their vicinity.

In other words, children at this stage acquire knowledge through sensory experiences and objects manipulation. During this period, children learn a lot through the people they relate with and other environmental factors. It is at this stage that children are able to recognise objects around them as well as attach words and names to those objects.

‘The Preoperational Stage
Ages: 2 to 7 Years
Features:
At this level, children are capable thinking symbolically. In other words, they make one thing to stand for another thing apart from that particular thing. At this stage, children think more about themselves than others. They see things from their own perspectives than from others.

Usually, it is at this previous stage that the foundation for language development is laid but it is at this stage that it fully develops. They also tend to believe in themselves that others. It is also usually difficult for them to take other people’s view at this stage.

‘The Concrete Operational Stage
Ages: 7 to 11 Years
Features:
At this level, children begin to engage themselves in logical thoughts. Unlike in the previous stage, children at this stage become more logical in their thoughts. They also think less about themselves alone and are now conscious of the people around them. They are also able to consider how other people may view situations. They become less selfish and take other people’s feeling into consideration.

‘The Formal Operational Stage
Ages: 12 and Up
Features:
At this level, children have grown into adolescence. They begin to think in abstract as opposed to concrete terms. They also reason about situations that are not really existing. This is the final stage of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. At this point, there’s an increase in logic and ability to understand abstract ideas. The child is now able to think about abstract ideas and situations.

Basil BernsteinBasil Bernstein was a British sociologist. He is renowned for his postulations in relation to the theory of language codes. By this it is meant that there is a relationship between the language spoken by a group of people and their social behaviours. When people cohabit with identical beliefs, they understand one another better. However, where such identicality is lacking, more words are needed for the people to communicate effectively.

I think I share Bernstein views in relation to his postulations as they relate to codes. As a matter of fact, his theory on restricted codes can be likened to a Yoruba (a very large ethnic majority group inSouth Western Nigeria) adage to the effect that: ‘Oro asoti lo n jepeOmomi gb’ena’. In other words, once a child has been used to a particular mode of communicating with his or her parents, it is always easier for such a child to understand what the parents are saying in heavily coded words. It is usually easier for parents to heave praises on such a child for understanding such coded words but the truth is that the environment in which the child has developed has mould him or her to what the parents can flaunt in public.

Lev VygotskyLevy Vygotsky was a Russian and lived in the years 1896-1934 and belonged and developed his theory of cognitive development. Vygotsky was of the belief that a child’s thought is dictated by his inherited social background. In other words, a child’s thought is affected by the knowledge of his environment. he emphasised the importance of language as a useful tool for acquiring the said knowledge.
Vygotsky also postulated another theory known as the ‘Zone of Proximal Development’, (ZPD). According to him, this can be divided into two levels. The first level is the current level of growth whilst the second one relates to those that a child is capable of attaining. Level one relates to what the child is capable of doing independently whilst the second level relates to what a child can potentially do with the help from others including teachers. The gap between the two is what he described as the ‘Zone of Proximal Development’. See an article by Sam Eddy (16).

During the course of my teaching practice, I made use of different theories in relation the teaching of my students. In view of the need to ensure inclusive learning, there was the need to adapt different theories to different learning needs of the students.
ConclusionEven though different theories postulated by these scholars dated back to several years ago, they undoubtedly remain relevant to contemporary learning.

TASK 8Introduction.By way of introduction, I have had series of teaching practice sessions all observed by my tutor and mentors with requisite feedbacks from my peers as well. Three main areas that I made use of in order to ensure effectiveness of the practice sessions are: planning, delivering and assessing. These are dealt with below.

Planning
Planning can be likened to a map. It is the sequence of steps to be taken for the purpose of achieving some set goals. It ensures the teacher saves time, efforts and energy in achieving set goals. As a teacher, there are some relevant questions one must ask himself when planning a teaching session. The first question is: What class of People am I teaching? In other words, the number of the students must be determined as well as their previous knowledge (or lack of it) of the students. There is also the need to know the social background of the students as well as their age grades. Once these have been identified, it becomes easier to design a lesson plan that would be suitable for the prospective learners.

Another pertinent question is: What exactly am I going to teach the learners? There is nothing as embarrassing as a teacher getting to the front of the students without having a very deep knowledge of what he is going to teach. In this context, the teacher must know the topic or subject to be taught. The teacher must ensure that he is properly prepared for the class in order to avoid any attendant embarrassment that may arise from an inadequate preparation. In addition to this, the teacher must be able to answer the question: How will I teach? In this instance, the estimated time for teaching and the necessary materials needed for the session are all very important. Will there be any need for visual aids? An initial diagnostic assessment would have afforded the teacher the opportunity of knowing what the individual needs of the students are.

Also included in the planning is the mode of ascertaining learners’ knowledge of the topic. This is where the teacher’s understanding of the various methods of assessment comes in. Will it be a question and answer session or a sort of self-assessment? Is the teacher going to test the students’ knowledge by giving them written tests after the session? All these must be included in the teacher’s planning.
Furthermore, there is the need to include the learning outcomes in the planning. In other words, what end does the teacher intend to achieve by teaching the topic? The teacher must plan what he expects the learners to know after the session. A very good and effective lesson plan must include the learning outcomes.
The last but not the least here (and the list is by no means exhaustive) is the issue of adaptability and flexibility. Here, the teacher must be able to envisage circumstances that may arise that would necessitate some changes either in the classroom setting of any unforeseen circumstances. The teacher must include all these in his plan. They were all taken into consideration during the course of delivering my sessions.

Delivering
Under this sub-heading, we shall be looking at the ability to use inclusive teaching and learning approaches to communicate with learners and to evaluate our delivery methods or techniques. Inclusive learning and teaching environment will depend largely on the classroom management. In other words, the teacher has a lot to do to ensure that there is the use of inclusive language in the class. Also, there is the need to recognize cultural and social differences among the learners. The teacher must ensure that there is no stereotyping in the in the classroom environment. Also, learners with specific learning difficulties as well as those with learning disabilities are accommodated without feeling alienated in any form. The teacher must also ensure that he introduces varying teaching and or learning methods to accommodate all learners. On the teacher’s side, he must use feedback especially from tutors and students to ascertain the effectiveness of his own practice.

Assessing
Assessment is the process of evaluating the educational needs of students. It also includes the evaluation of the student’s improvement as learning progresses. There are quite a number of assessment methods. Prominent among them are formative and summative assessments.

Formative assessment is the process of evaluating a student’s level of potentials at the beginning of an academic exercise. Its importance is to assist the teacher in determining a student’s knowledge level so as to know what individual learning plan would be prepared for such a learner. Formative assessments are not usually for scoring or grading purposes. There is no hard and fast ruleas to what format a formative assessment should take. What is important is it being able to achieve the intended goal.

On the other hand, Summative assessment is used to gauge the level of a student’s understanding of a topic that has been taught. In contradistinction from the formative assessment, it normally takes place at the end of the course. It is also a scoring and grading exercise. This may be in form of examinations, tests, etc. It gives the teacher the opportunity of knowing whether what he has taught was clearly understood by the students or not. It must be noted that in all of these cases, different teachers may adopt different methods of carrying out both formative and summative assessments. Summative assessment gives the teacher the opportunity of knowing whether the teaching method was suitable for the student or there is the need to change, modify or completely do away with the approach or method.
It is instructive to note that all the above were successfully deployed during the course of my teaching practice. For instance, there were about three students with specific needs in my class and I ensured that their individual learning needs were all met. A t a point I had to move the seat of a student who could not see the front properly from the back of the class to the front and he was satisfied with the method adopted by me. Also, I made sure that the student who was hard of hearing was provided with an appropriate hearing aid with he also found effective. Another who was not able to sit on the chair in the class was provided with an appropriate wheel-chair.

Conclusion.

By and large, the three areas of planning, delivering and assessing used by me during the course of my teaching practice were found to be effective but there is always room for improvement.

References
Michelle Waldron (2013)iqualifyuk.com
Gravells and Simpson, Planning to meet the Needs of learners in Education and training Essay, (2915) published by essaymoose.

Gravells and Simpson (supra)
calper.ia.psu.edu/projectwork/index.phpBrown, S and Glasner, A, (2003) Assessment Matters in Higher Education: Choosing and Using Diverse Approaches. Buckingham. The Society for Research in Higher Education and Open University Press.

Assessment Reform Group (UK2002).

www.preservearticles.com.

www.skillsyouneed.com.
Merriam Webster.

www.wikipedia.

www.peoi.org/courses/mass2.htmlverywell.com/piaget-stages-of-cognitive-development-2795457
www.wikipediapsychohawks.wordpress.com/2010/11/03/theories-of-cognitive-development-levy-vystgosky.

Spencer. 2003, p.25
edglossary.org/assessment