The law is a set of rules imposed on all members of the community

The law is a set of rules imposed on all members of the community. Laws are officially recognised, they are binding on all people and they can be enforced in courts. The law provides penalties for those who do not obey it and remedies for people who have been wronged.
Public Laws
Public law deals with the powers and obligations of government and citizens, and the relationships between persons and the state.
Criminal Law
In criminal court cases, there is a prosecutor and a defendant (also known as the accused). The state brings the case to court through the prosecutor. The onus is on the prosecutor to prove the case. The standard of proof in a criminal case is ‘beyond reasonable doubt’. Criminal cases can either be summary or indictable, summary offences are heard by a magistrate in the local courts without a jury. Indictable offences are usually in the district or supreme court before a judge and jury.
Example: NSW Crimes Act 1900
Administrative Law
Administrative law looks after government powers and the decisions of government organisations. The administrative law exists to ensure the accountability of the administrative decisions and actions made by the government and its departments.
Example: Administrative Appeals Tribunal Act 1975
Constitutional Law
Constitutional law is the branch of public law focuses on the rules governing the executive, legislative and judicial functions of government. In Australia, legislative power is divided between the Commonwealth and the states, as the Australian Constitution has given the Commonwealth Parliament power to make laws with respect to particular topics.
Example: Roach v Electoral Commissioner 2007 HCA 43
“This case challenged the constitutionality of a statute. Prior to the amendment of the Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918 (Cth) in 2006, prisoners serving a sentence of fewer than three years were entitled to vote in elections. The 2006 amendments took away the right to vote of any prisoner serving a sentence. Vickie Lee Roach, a serving prisoner, took the case to the High Court claiming the Act as amended was unconstitutional. Her team of lawyers argued that the new law breached her implied constitutional freedoms of political participation and political communication. After hearing the case, the majority of the court found the amended law to be invalid, but accepted the validity of the previous law, which banned prisoners from voting if they were serving a term of three years or more.”
Private Laws
Private law regulates relationships between persons, companies and organisations. Rights are protected by both statute and common law.
Contract Law
A contract is an agreement, between two or more parties that are recognised by law. Contract law is concerned with the recognition of this agreement and the actions taken to enforce it. When one of the parties to a contract believes that all or part of the contract has been breached, he or she can bring a legal action in a civil court. Damages are most often the common law remedy available for breach of contract.
Example: NSW Consumer Act 1978
Tort Law
Torts are ‘civil wrongs’. Tort cases deal with situations in which someone has done something to interfere with the rights of someone else. All torts enable the alleged victim to take legal action against the alleged perpetrator in a civil court and claim compensation. There are several types of torts, all of which are regulated by statute as well as common law. Negligence, nuisance – public and private, trespass to land, false imprisonment, defamation.
Example: 1936 Grant v Australia Knitting Mills AC 85
Property Law
Property law is a wide area of law that governs relations involving things and interests that can be owned and that have a commercial value. These include objects capable of being possessed physically, but also less tangible interests such as shares in a company.
Example: Google v ACCC (2013) 294 ALR 404; 2013 HCA 1