“The People Demands of Landscape Architecture as a Part of Urban Design in Esfahan Streets” FARNAZ ALINAGHIAN A thesis submitted in fulfillment of the Requirement for the award of the degree of Master of Science

“The People Demands of Landscape Architecture as a Part of Urban Design in Esfahan Streets”


We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

A thesis submitted in fulfillment of the
Requirement for the award of the degree of
Master of Science (Landscape Architecture)

Faculty of Landscape Architecture
Hochschule Anhalt (Bernburg)

September 2018

I declare that this thesis entitled “The People Demands of Landscape Architecture as a Part of Urban Design in Esfahan Streets” is the result of my own research except as cited in the references. The thesis has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted in a candidature of any other degree.

Name : Farnaz Alinaghian
Date : September 25, 2018


“I wish to express my sincere appreciation to my supervisor, Professor Dr.Alexander Kader for his guidance, advices, criticism, encouragements and insight throughout the research. And I am indebted to Professor Dr.Nicole Uhrig for her supports, suggestions and comments on making this investigation more comprehensible and clear; your ideas, and feedback have been absolutely invaluable. I am very grateful to both of you.
I would especially like to thank my amazing mother for the love, support, and constant encouragement I have gotten always and I undoubtedly could not have done this without you.”


Increasingly, scholars suggest thinking of the street as a social space, rather than just a channel of movement. Today, streets turned to a space for passing rather than a place to stay and enjoy.
Naturally people like active streets full of movement, lights, colors, stores and etc. But these days most of streets are frozen with a cool atmosphere without attraction for pedestrians.
Physical characteristics of streets such as shape, form, buildings, furniture and so on, are measured and tested to understand which characteristics support social interactions and which kinds of physical elements and activities motivate people to come and take time in a street more than others.
Semi structured observations and questionnaire are used to study social interaction, commercial and economic, physical elements and landscape elements in Esfahan, Iran. The findings reveal that people are equally concerned with the social, land use, and physical aspects of the street. Businesses that are community places, personalized street fronts, sidewalk width particularly and other physical elements and city furniture contribute to stationary and social activities on streets.




1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Statement of Problem 2
1.3 Research Questions 3
1.4 Research Aim and Objectives 4
1.5 Scope of Research 4
1.6 Significance of study 6
2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 Landscape & Streetscape Appraisal 8
2.2.1 Streetscape 8
2.2.2 Landscaping 10
2.2.3 Who is involved in Landscape & Streetscape Design 12
2.3 Physical Elements 16
2.3.1 Provided for physical comfort 26
2.3.2 Form and Shape 26
2.3.3 Street Types 30
2.3.4 Channel of Movement 33
2.4 Social Interaction and Activities 43
2.4.1 Necessery Activities 44
2.4.2 Formal and Informal Street Activities…………………….38
2.4.3 Optional Activities (Urban recreation)……………………40
2.4.4 Social-based Informal Street Activities……………………43
2.5 Commercial and Economic 44
2.5.1 Economic-based Informal Street Activities 45
2.6 Cultural Activities 46
2.6.1 Cultural-based Informal Street Activities 46
2.7 Summary 48

3.1 Introduction 48
3.2 Location of Study Area and its History 490
3.2.1 Introduction of Esfahan (The city of case study) 51
3.2.2 Urban Morphology, typology and site development Error! Bookmark not defined. Definition 65
3.2.3 The Case Study Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.2.4 Mixed Use and Street Character…………………………. 64
3.3 Methods of data collection 74
3.3.1 Instrumentation 74 Documentation and Archives 74 Questionnaire 75 Observation 76 Interviews 76 Semi-structured interview 76
3.3.2 Respondents 77
3.3.3 Procedure 78
3.4 Data Analysis 78
3.4.1 Descriptive Statistics 79
3.5 Analysis of semi-structured interview 79
3.6 Summary 89
4.1 Introduction 91
4.2 Discussion 92
4.2.1 Different aspect of Case Study and their Activities 94
4.2.2 The Function and Landscape Elements of Case Study 90 Case Study as an Urban Imaginary Axis 94 Physical Features of Case Study Error! Bookmark not defined.
4.3 Conclusion 93
4.4 Recommendation 95
References 101



Table 2.1: Street types that combine capacity and character 31
Table 2.2: Street a channel of movement 33
Table 2.3: Street as a Social Space 37
Table 2.4: Characteristics of Formal and Informal Sector 38
Table 3.1: Different researches on street activities 78

Figure 2.1: Section of Octavia Boulevard in San Francisco 9
Figure 2.2: Streetscape and Landscaping 27
Figure 2.3: Physical conception of street: (a) street-solid block street wall (b) street-open parkland (landscape) as street wall 27
Figure 2.4: : Type of streetscape: inflected and uninflected showing different visual perception of streetscape. Source: Looking at London, Kutcher, (1978) 28
Figure 2.5: Perceptual characteristic of streetscape according to motorists and pedestrians. Source: Rapoport, 1987 29
Figure 2.6: Street Types 37
Figure 2.7: The street realm is composed of the travel way realm, the pedestrian realm and the adjacent land use 40
Figure 2.8: Necessary activities in the pedestrian area; people use pedestrian area for daily activities 41
Figure 2.9: Optional activities in the pedestrian area; people use pedestrian area as a place to see and to be seen 40
Figure 2.10: Social activities in the pedestrian area;active and passive activities ocure along pedestrian area 41
Figure 2.11: Economic-based informal street activities offer numerous kinds of street trading along the street space 44
Figure 3.1: location of the case study, Esfahan, Iran 51
Figure 3.2: Esfahan Urban Morphology until 17th Century. 52
Figure 3.3: Case Study Urban Morphology Error! Bookmark not defined.
Figure 3.4: The case study (Four Streets in Esfahan, Iran) Error! Bookmark not defined.
Figure 3.5: Chahar Bagh Avenue, Esfahan Error! Bookmark not defined.
Figure 3.6: Chahar Bagh Avenue, Esfahan, 17th Century Error! Bookmark not defined.
Figure 3.7: Chahar Bagh Abbasi in different time and situation Error! Bookmark not defined.
Figure 3.8: Chahar Bagh Khajou in different time and situation. 65
Figure 3.9: Ayeneh Khaneh Boulevard in different time and situation 68
Figure 3.10: Mir Fendereski Street in different time and situation 71
Figure 3.11: Street Activities. 79
Figure 3.12: People Feeling. 81
Figure 3.13: People Demand. 82
Figure 3.14: Street Character. 83
Figure 3.15: Unwanted Features. 84
Figure 3.16: Landscape Elements. 85


A Survey Questionnaire of study -1-



1.1 Introduction

Nowadays Cities will attracts people by the first look from the above. There are interesting curved lines which are like arteries in the body of the city. They are paths and in professional character they are streets. These lines link all parts of the cities. It can be realized that these arteries have a pulse and they are alive with several kinds of activities when come down from the sky to these streets.
Every day, people have forced to use streets to reach to their work, shops, Schools, meet each other, etc. People pass the major part of their time and life in the streets during the days. Thus, this investigation explains the role of these major streets, in our city life and shows which street is preferable by people as users in urban center in terms of Landscape Architecture and street elements that designer use them in street to make it comfortable and enjoyable. It is more included of lights, greenery and plants, furniture and physical elements, color, art, pavement structure and covering and etc.
Refer to the multifunctional role of streets within the cities; they have a different use, meaning and influence to the people. This study investigates these different influences of streets landscape structure for urban users and explains their imagination demands and desires about this great urban element.
The word of street is come from the Latin “Sternere”, with the meaning of pave. It suggests an area for public use but not exclusively loyal to circulation. By a definition, The Street is a multi-functional space which is providing enclosure and activity as well as movement and leisure activities. Its main functions are:
– Circulation for vehicles and pedestrians.
– Access to buildings and the provision of light and ventilation for buildings.
– A Rout for utilities.
– Public space for human interaction and sociability; (that this last function is our goal in this investigation with a focus on physical elements and landscape architectural views) everything from display and protests to chance encounters.
Ideally, all these aspects of the street can successfully coexist but all too often. It is a function especially the movement of vehicles which has been allowed to dominate.
1.2 Statement of Problem
This study is a research about The People Demands of Landscape Architecture as a Part of Urban Design in Esfahan Streets usage and describes people perceptual of landscape elements by the streets.
The street as an urban physical element in the city is also a social fact. It can be analyzed in terms of who owns, used and it’s changing social and economic function, who and what affected on street role in the city. From 30 years ago the function of cities changed in people mind and also streets (Toth, 2008). Today people mostly look at streets just as a link for leading them to their destination and they forget its roles of communication, the interaction between people and groups and enjoy of the environment. They forget that can use streets as a site for casual interaction including of recreation, conversation and entertainment, as well as its use as a site for ritual observance.
In the utility Analysis of the street as an element of design city at the end of the 20th century, it cannot be permitted to color judgment. It is not possible to affirm with any degree of certainty how or to what extent the physical environment affects the way people behave (Moughtin, 1992).
The case study of this investigation also has some problems like every other part of cities around the world. Something likes lack of amenities and safety; lack of suitable furniture; problems about the form of the street that effect on traffic circulation and social behavior of users in these sites and so on. This research tried to find a solution for make better streets for users and residences from the landscape architecture perspective.
1.3 Research Questions
This investigation tried to answer these questions:
1. What are the people interpret about the street?
2. What are street elements that people need to use?
3. How Street can be a friendly and livable place for people?
4. Which kind of street people prefer to be in it?
5. Which physical elements is more important for users in street?
6. How many people are interested in landscape elements of the street?

1.4 Research Aim and Objectives
The aim of this study is to investigate how influence the landscape elements of streets on users, in various types of people, communities and cities; what is the meaning of urban furniture and greenery for different ages (children and adults), different sex (male and female) and different occupation in streets and activities.
Generally, this study hopes to understand people interpretation with place and structure in an urban setting of the streets. The objectives of this study are:
1. To realize the successful cities by the proper services to the people.
2. To show more interest object and physical elements in the streets and makes them different to users.
3. To understand peoples’ needs in the streets especially by the landscaping.
4. To design sustainable and livable urban streets.
1.5 Scope of Research
There are practical considerations of time and resources that limit all research. The inquiry was limited to ask from local and residents around four different types of streets in Esfahan as one of the greatest cities in Iran.
First, Chaharbagh Abbasi Street is known as an old historic and traditional street. The Second is Boulevard Ayeene khane as a link and passaging Modern Street without highlighted function. Mir is another Street as an active, mixed use commercial and residential street. Chaharbagh Khaju Street is the last one which is a mixed residential and commercial semi active historic street.
In different countries, cities and even different neighborhood streets has a different meaning for their users by their function and people’s culture. Therefore this investigation just looks at the Structure of streets as desired by people of this city and this culture.
There are likely cultural differences in preferences for location and day-to-day shopping and other commercial activities, especially in relation to local residential environments. Furthermore, it is likely that in streets or similar environmental settings with a different ethnic and racial mix and different culture, the use of these settings may be different. The social interaction on the street from the observations and desired by people in this study may not represent a cultural behavioral pattern that is universally accepted. There is also a strong likelihood of many other variations. Different cultures have different thresholds for the tolerance and acceptance of perceptual stimuli and levels of social interaction especially among people of different gender, race, and class.
For these reasons and to test, validate, and broaden the findings of this study, it would be useful to repeat the study on commercial and residential streets in neighborhoods in other towns and cities and in different cultures. This study does not investigate the impact of people’s income on the perception of streets because respondents have not any tendency to tell about their incomes.
This investigation is not bounded by time; it searched during the day and night times; Given that during night streets have limited meaning for people may be because of access way and amusing and different activities during the day and night like play outdoor space, work place, shopping, access road, amusing and so on.
Another delimit was streets area and zone. In this small scale of inquiry it cannot cover every street then chose the several streets indeed of their usage whereas it’s more attracted for locals and tourists in this town.
In addition, the inquiry has not a limitation for the age of responders; they can be in all category and class. In this way can realize the demands of users from streets for all type of users.
1.6 Significance of the study
Overview of this theoretical framework refines the influence of landscape architecture on streets from users’ viewpoint for different types, genders and ages of people. In other hands, find how people use the physical aspect of streets like furniture and lights and greenery as an urban open space and what they hope to have on streets.
The designers and professionals should show more interest in the streets and makes them different to users; and people are shaping the environment in a city or town then should associate them to make complete their environment.
This investigation is the continuing of its precedence research about planning and designs a sustainable and livable urban street with more useful landscape architectural elements which is a great issue in these decade previous studies. Most of the urban planners and designers are trying to reach to this aim about streets because streets are heart and arteries of a city or town.
People are main respondents and stakeholders of this great urban element and then tried to make it more useful and practical for users by their help and opinions about their prediction of surrounding environment and make a type of street preferred by people.



2.1 Introduction
This chapter provides a review of literatures related to Streetscape and Landscape Architecture, Street Design Basic and Elements, Landscape Guidelines and synthesize the key studies and concepts of a street; street in an urban physical context and form and uses of streets.
Street or in other terms “path” is the first most significant element which forms the image of a city (Lynch, 1960). Paths are the most noticeable and memorable features in a city amongst the nodes, landmarks, edges and district.
Forasmuch as streets make up to almost 80 percent of our urban public spaces and have multifunction roles, it’s important to design them in a right manner. To be sustainable and fit for purpose in the 21st century, streets need to respond to the demands of climate change and exchange in culture and people demands. Streets are major elements of place-making and their role is special importance in creating successful city life (Jacob, 1993).
2.2 Landscape ; Streetscape Appraisal
Natural and man-made landscapes are important factors in defining the key characteristics of a conservation area. Nevertheless, elements of streetscape are equally important in holding together the sum of parts and the quality and nature of these features contribute to the overall character of the area.

2.2.1 Streetscape
It refers to the elements within and along the street right-of-way that define its appearance, identity, and functionality. These elements are included the adjacent buildings, land uses, street furniture, landscaping, trees, sidewalks, and pavement treatments. Streetscapes, such as colorful landscaped medians or brick road surfaces with tree-lined shoulders, enhance local aesthetics. They may also serve a functional purpose; awnings in a downtown shopping district filter sunlight, while bike lanes, bike racks, and street furniture encourage and facilitate non-motorized transportation.

– Streetscape Features
On-street parking can enhance the pedestrian environment. On-street parking:
• Buffers pedestrians from traffic
• Decreases traffic speed since it narrows the roadway.
Sidewalks and bicycle paths are other important elements of street design.
Along these wide sidewalks, many streetscape features can be used to improve the pedestrian environment. These include:
• Benches
• Pedestrian scaled lighting
• Trash cans
• Bike racks
• Planters
•Street trees
Figure 2.1: This section is based on Octavia Boulevard in San Francisco.
(Source: ???, 20??)

Figure 2.1 explains completely deferent parts of streetscape and identifies them.
1- Trees are spaced to have touching crowns which they form almost an unbroken canopy parallel to the street. They are planted right up to the intersections to break down the overall scale of the street.
2- There are two scales of light fixtures, signage and other elements– larger in the center and smaller on the sides.
3- The width of the local access lanes is as narrow as possible. Emergency vehicle access is accommodated through mountable curbs on the side median.
4- All three medians provide refuge for pedestrians crossing the street.
5- Tree-lined sidewalks provide access to outdoor space for active first-floor uses and other pedestrian activities.
The use of temporary materials in street design has expanded in recent years as cities work to remake their streets using low-cost and innovative methods. Short-term improvements allow residents and visitors to experience new street configurations without the commitment of major funding for new curbs and other capital improvements. This method has many advantages:
– Neighborhood Aesthetics – designs for temporary treatments can be selected together with local merchants and neighborhood organizations, and they can be involved in planting flowers and other ongoing activities.
– Health ; Safety – a quick turnaround project can immediately address unsafe conditions on streets and at intersections.
– Low-cost – materials like paint, glue, or gravel are inexpensive compared to asphalt and cement curbs.
– Changeable – if a pilot project has negative impacts on parking or traffic patterns, it is easy to restore the roadway to its original condition.

2.2.2 Landscaping
Landscaping is more about the simply using objects or plants to fill space or create transitions. In commercial and residential development, it often involves a creative and thoughtful design process. An emerging trend is to utilize native plants and trees in landscapes. This eliminates the proliferation of invasive species, protects soils, minimizes energy and water usage, provides habitat, and supports the local economy. Looking to nature for guidance is at the heart of integrated landscaping, which is a holistic approach that incorporates multilayered plant systems. Capturing and treating storm water is another component of good design. Properly placed vegetation can reduce the velocity of runoff and filter sediment and pollutants before they reach surface water bodies.
Landscape strips are an effective treatment between streets and sidewalks to help passengers feel more comfortable walking along the street and make a buffer from driving vehicles and street sounds.
Planters add color, texture and interest to a streetscape and can help to define and separate spaces.
The areas for rest and waiting along the side walk provide welcome relief to the walkers and places to sit, interact and enjoy.
It can be helped by public art to establish a unique identity, enhance civic pride, depict a cultural or historical event and add interest to public spaces.
Screening provides a visual buffer between pedestrian and vehicular spaces and a continuation of the street wall. The Delineation between these two can also improve public safety through separation of public areas from parking and circulation areas, as well as grade changes.
Outdoor cafés provide an active street frontage and natural locations for arranged and spontaneous social interactions. Even narrow sidewalks can accommodate café-style seating.
Properly lit and designed, alleys and in-fill spaces can turn “dead space” into secure, inviting, and lively spaces.
The fixtures / utility zone are located directly adjacent to the street and provide a buffer between street traffic and the pedestrian travel zone. It also offers a location for lights, poles, and signs outside the pedestrian travel way.

Lighting of the street system, including adjacent sidewalks, walkways and bike lanes, increases security and pedestrian safety and comfort.
• Landscape and streetscape design should unify the campus and help establish a distinct identity.
• Develop streets and public spaces that are pedestrian and bicycle friendly, environmentally responsible and aesthetically pleasing.
• The campus landscape plan should mimic natural systems to manage water quantity and quality, reduce heat island effects, respond to seasonal temperatures and support wildlife habitat.

2.2. Landscape ; Streetscape Design’s Stakeholders
On complex projects, environmental, civil and transportation consultants may collaborate on a streetscape or landscape design. In commercial and increasingly in residential developments, a landscape architect is often employed. The American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) defines landscape architecture as, “the profession which applies artistic and scientific principles to the research, planning, design and management of both natural and built environments”. Work can also be done by a landscape designer, particularly when the site engineering has been done by a certified engineer. Landscape designers have a strong working knowledge of plants and are an excellent resource for selecting plants that are best suited for the particular location.

Figure 2.2: Streetscape and Landscaping

An attractive town center is inviting to new and long-time residents, visitors, and business owners.
Community design can promote interaction among citizens and help create safe destinations for pedestrians and cyclists.
Trees, greenery, & parks absorb air and water pollutants while providing shade and a cooling effect on public spaces and buildings.
Street furniture, raised crosswalks, and other elements of the pedestrian landscape increase driver awareness.
However, there is limited research on the street as a behavior setting for everyday activities and social interaction but most studies were done at macroscale physical factors such as socioeconomics, location, accessibility, major destinations, density, major natural features, and so on. The other researches in this field also engaged geographic literature and history of the urban form. More noticeable is the fact that most studies in the past have either studied the physical features of the environment or the land uses and the businesses or the places that hold special meanings for the community.
However, urban designers and planners and Landscape Architectures realize that “it remains difficult to isolate physical features from social and economic activities that bring value to our experiences” (Jacobs, 1993). There is a need for research to view the experience from a user’s perspective by simultaneously focusing on the physical features, the uses and facilities, their operation and management, and the meanings these hold for the users that make the street attractive for people to use.
A Street is a channel of movement, communication space, public space, place of social and commercial encounter and exchange, place to do business, political space as well as a symbolic and ceremonial space in the city. It is a place where people come together to eat and to socialize. The narrow tunnel in front of the buildings and corridor has become a suitable space to move and to interact with each other (Poerbo, 2004). The multi-functional streets have been stated more by various scholars (Jacobs, 1961; Rykwert, 1986; Czaenowsky, 1986; Moughtin, 1992; Rapoport, 1987; Jacobs, 1993).
As well as providing access to buildings and the services to them, streets are the most important public spaces. Streets serve many functions, not only the circulation of traffic but walking, cycling, play and meeting people. The spaces defined by buildings frame the street. Streets are multi-functional spaces and there is always the risk of conflict between uses. The types of the street to be included in a scheme are the key to its overall character. The conventional engineering-led approach to street classification is based solely on vehicular capacity. This regards streets as traffic conduits and ignores their multi-functional role. A new terminology is required to describe all the roles that streets can play in making successful places (Llewelyn-Davies. 2000).
People focus on a part of their life rather than on one street because of being not necessarily economic or functional. A particular street unlocks memories or offers expectations of something pleasant to be seen or the possibility of meeting someone, known or new; the possibility of an encounter. This street can make a strong feeling in the passengers’ minds and encourage them to be in this street more than the others. In fact, this place has a spatial meaning to people.
In the context of urban physical form, a street is believed to be one of the earliest elements of city pattern. Streets are the arteries of our communities. A community’s success can depend on how well it is connected to local services and the wider world.
However, it is too easy to forget that streets are not just there to get people from point A to point B but in reality, streets have many other functions; social space, commercial space, cultural space, channels of movement and access and even political space. The main goal of streets as a place is to change the design and construction of public streets into places that make better the quality of human life and the environment and not just for passing by vehicles from place to place.

The major components of the street design are
• The width of the street
• The pattern of the street network
• Physical elements along the streetscape.
Here announced some these features that help streets and urban public spaces to be an effective place in people life.

Parameters and variables are including:
1. Physical elements like street size, length, sidewalk, shops, traffic by
vehicles and pedestrians, trees and water, furniture and people.
2. Social interaction like social activities, communication.
3. Commercial aspect and economic.
4. Recreation, conversation, entertainment and amusements and totally
People’s behaviors in streets.
Pedestrian and bicycle accessibility provides the ease and convenience to reach a destination by walking, bicycles or transit. If streets provide pedestrian and bicycle accessibility, including access to transit, people will have the freedom to choose how to travel to take care of their needs and aspirations. Pedestrian access is useful for people of all ages and walks of life.
All of this information depends on culture and people believe. Streets are channels of movement and symbolic representation of local tradition and culture.
2.3 Physical Elements
In 1972, Relphs classified that there are three basic elements of the place’s identity. For example, the Static of physical setting, the activities and the meaning must be interrelated (Relphs, 1972). Physical appearances, activities and meanings are the raw materials of the identity of places and the dialectical links between them are the elementary structural relations of that identity.
Some streets are better and more pleasant than others: to be on, to do what you came to do. People go back to some streets more often than to others, and not just because the things they want to do or have to do, but they are more centered on one than the others. It is depended on the physical elements that they excite your mind strong and give them a viable experience.
These characteristics effect on urban life are some qualities that mostly make facilities for urban users to operate streets as an urban public space. These are physical elements such as furniture, access or channel of movement, trees and water, shape and form and so on.
In cities there are different kinds of streets for living, shopping, working, walking or driving, leisure or a combination of activities. It is the physical characteristic that makes a great residential street are significantly different from those of a shopping street.
The physical quality of a street could support the human activities. There is a relationship between human activities and the physical environment. Human beings bring life to urban spaces through their activities (Rapoport, 1987). In another hand, urban spaces structure and shape human activities through their physical forms the boundaries.
Streets and their sidewalks, the main public places of the city, are its most essential organs. When you think of a city, streets come to your mind. If a city’s streets look interesting, the city looks interesting; if they look boring, the city looks boring. Then it is necessary attention to physical elements of streets to make them responsive for urban users.
Equipment elements are characteristics to provide connections between passengers and give a certain functional and aesthetic meaning to the area and have various identify, quantities and it also helps to complete the area. Because of these reasons, urban equipment elements are of great importance not only for functional purposes but also for the effects that refresh the urban landscape (Bayrakc, 1991).
Building functions effect on a street. Zoning codes control the location of different types of buildings and such physical features as the maximum height. Zoning codes usually separate residential, commercial, and industrial buildings. Usually, one type of building predominates on a street.
A Street can combine different types of buildings and a building can have more than one use. People relaxing, curtains in windows, children playing, bicycles and baby carriages in front of buildings indicate a residential street.
Community services and public buildings or facilities are included those one with government functions (such as post office, fire station, and authorities and town halls), recreation, religious observance, entertainment, health care, education, and transportation. Most public and community services buildings are located in residential or commercial areas.
The type of a building uses on a street influence the size, shape, and life of that street. For example, commercial buildings generate heavy pedestrian and vehicular traffic. Therefore, commercial streets need to be wide to accommodate shoppers and provide access for vehicles.
Hence one of the most important components of mixed-use neighborhoods is the planning and design of neighborhood commercial streets to support the functions, activities, and ambiance desired by the people who will live or work there.
Numerous microscale characteristics of the physical environment such as fixed, semi-fixed, and movable objects and the behavioral environment like uses, activities, operation, and management identify the important elements of public spaces to the users (Gehl, 1987). These included aspects of environmental comfort such as microclimatic conditions of sunlight, shade, wind, and temperature.
These microscale characteristics effect on street uses and roles; variations between the uses of streets even within one mixed-use neighborhood. Some streets are certainly livelier than others. These variations are a result of microscale characteristics of the physical environment and land use.
Therefore should attention on all physical elements that they can help street to be an enjoyable place for urban users of public spaces. There is a need for research to view the experience from a user’s perspective by simultaneously focusing on the physical features, the uses and facilities, their operation and management, and the meanings these hold for the users that make the street attractive for people to use.
The aspects of physical comfort and useful are considered such as sitting space and other street furniture and physical objects, generous sidewalk width (Whyte, 1980); trees and aspects of the land uses in the environment such as a variety of shops (Jacobs, 1961; Alexander et al., 1977; Montgomery, 1998; Hass-Klau et al., 1999).
All landscape elements should be provided and reinforced the function of each specific space: vehicular-oriented streets, pedestrian-oriented streets, and other pedestrian spaces, areas that frame views and vistas, storm water management, wildlife habitat.
Here announce most important landscape elements such as:
– Planting;
– Sidewalks and Pavement;
– Furnishings; (Benches, Table Sets, Seat walls, Trash Receptacles, Bicycle Racks, Bollards.)
– Retaining Walls;
– Lighting;
– Storm water;

– Planting
• Landscaped areas should be continuous from one lot to another and should use landscape materials that are compatible with adjacent lots, streets, drainage corridors, and landscape easements.
• Landscape areas should be an integral part of the site storm water management strategy, through rain gardens, bioswales and street planters and curb extensions.
• The campus plan and individual building site plans should utilize the plant palettes of both: Landscaping with Native Plants (East Tennessee), Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation; Site Design Guidelines, University of Tennessee, Knoxville (July, 2008).
• Trees should be generally grouped to mimic naturally occurring forest type groups specific to the soil, aspect, and water requirements, with a variety of types, sizes and species.
• Rows of trees should appropriately parallel and reinforce street corridors. The use of a variety of types, sizes and species, however, is encouraged to emphasize different micro-climates, building entrances, roadway intersections, walkway locations, and other functional variations.
• Shrubs and understory or small flowering trees should be used, along with flower beds, to provide seasonal color, visual emphasis and a comfortable scale for human interaction.
– Sidewalks and Pavement
• Sidewalks should have a minimum width of 5 feet.
• Sidewalks should be brick on a sand base with brick edging.

– Furnishings
Amenities such as outdoor seating and plaza areas for meetings and gatherings are encouraged throughout the campus. Selected furnishings will add character as well as create environments for community interaction. The degree to which site furnishings vary among building sites and campus spaces should be minimal.
• A single style of streetscape and landscape furnishings should be used to establish a distinct and unified campus.
• High quality, durable material such as metal should be selected to minimize maintenance.
One of the important factors for a street is the need to provide for everyone the concept of inclusive design, regardless of age or ability. It does not necessarily mean that every element of infrastructure has to provide the needs of all users. If any aspect of a street prevents its use by particular user groups, can supply them with a suitable another way of getting around.
A great part of the inclusive design is about urban furniture that helps people to enjoy of their surrounding in the city and streets. Therefore, with street furniture can provide the most needs of urban users and make the street more pleasant for them.
Urban street furniture is the structural elements that are varied depending on the cultural features of countries or cities. In the view of adding a meaning to ”city identify” and facility of the ”society life” these elements have a very important role (Bulut, 2005).
Street furniture takes a more important role for their esthetical and functional characteristics in the sustainable and livable street as an urban equipment element. People frequent and enjoy some streets more than others, for physical reasons as well as for the activities or calm to be found there. It is related to the design of details in street, furniture (Jacob, 1993).
Every group of urban planning and urban design believe that streets are the second home for citizens in towns and cities and they are trying to make a sustainable and livable street for people. The situation of walking is not only influenced by distance but also by the quality of the walking experience. This will depend on how much the environment is attractive and motivating, and how people feel safe and secure with it. The safety of walkways and suitable furniture and sidewalks will provide a walkable street for the citizens.
A great street is shadier than another street on a hot summer day, physically safe and comfortable, comfortable to walk and more pleasant to be on. Physical safety can be another option, and it can be defined as many things but the general concern is relatively frank and uncomplicated. One should not have to worry about being hit by a car or truck or about easy moving on the pavement or about some other physical thing built into the street being unsafe. Then pedestrians can walk in the streets with leisure.
Main streets tend to focus on features of urban design that provide for a comfortable pedestrian experience. These accommodations often come in the form of streetscape improvements such as the ornamental lighting, planting of street trees, good-looking sidewalks and the provision of benches. The prevailing thought is that a pleasant pedestrian environment will “encourage people to stay longer than usual,” thus increasing the chances for social interaction (Robertson, 1999).
Isolated trees will be growing along the streets, in street medians, or private property is a critical foundation for both a healthy population and a healthy economy in any city (Thaiutsaa, Puangchita, 2008).

• Benches should be located in courtyards and along major pedestrian paths, associated with landscaping and shading, and shielded from vehicles.
• Benches with armrests should be 6 feet in length, solid steel frame, powder coated, finish color to be determined.
• Backless benches with armrests should be positioned at appropriate locations for multi-directional seating.

Table Sets
• Table sets, all steel components with powder coated finish, finish color to be determined, should be located throughout the campus in outdoor seating areas and plazas.

Seat Walls
• Seat walls should be used throughout the campus to provide convenient sitting opportunities and define landscaping, especially in outdoor gathering spaces and along major pedestrian paths.
• Seat walls should have a smooth cut of stone, precast or brick caps.
• Seat walls should be consistent with surrounding buildings in materials, patterns, and colors.
• Seat wall heights should range from 12 to 20 inches, and the width should be no less than 16 inches.

Trash Receptacles
• Trash containers should be placed unobtrusively throughout the campus at logical gathering areas such as building entries, outdoor seating locations, intersections of walkways, bus stops and parking lots.
• Receptacles should be setback 3 feet from walkways.
• Use 24 gallons receptacle with dome lid and 10 inches stainless steel ashtray.
• All steel components should have a powder coated finish, color to be determined. Lid attached via vinyl-coated aircraft cable, high density plastic. Liner, rubber tipped leveling feet.

Bicycle Racks
• Recommended bicycle parking guidelines established by the Association of Bicycle and Pedestrian Professionals (APBP) should be referenced when determining appropriate bicycle racks and rack area design.
• Bicycle rack areas should be immediately adjacent to the entrance it serves, preferably within 50 feet, and clearly visible, without impeding pedestrian movement in and out of the building.
• Rack elements, such as an inverted “U”, should support the bicycle upright by its frame in two places, and prevent the wheel of the bicycle from tipping over, and enable the frame and one or both wheels to be secured.
• Comb, toast, schoolyard, and other wheel bending racks that provide no support for the bicycle frame are not recommended.

• Bollards should be used to reinforce street curbs in the absence of planting strips to provide additional pedestrian safety, especially adjacent to the main lawns.
• Bollards should not interfere with loading areas, including bus stops.
• Bollards must accommodate emergency fire access. Additional Furnishings
• Planting containers or planters should be limited to priority locations such as building entrances, courtyards and plazas.
• Newspaper boxes and kiosks should be limited to major building entries, parking areas, and transit stops.
• All additional furnishings should be consistent in style with the overall streetscape design and avoid the appearance of visual clutter.

– Retaining Walls
• The design and materials for retaining walls should complement the principal buildings with regard to color, quality, scale and detail.

– Lighting
Lighting is an integral component of the overall campus design, helping to establish a campus identity, support wayfinding, contributing to safety and security, and highlighting important nodes, public spaces and building entries.
• Recommended light level guidelines and uniformity ratios established by the Illumination Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), in the IESNA Lighting Handbook (current edition), should be considered when determining appropriate lighting design solutions.
• Lighting should minimize glare and light trespass, maximize energy conservation, and maintain dark skies.
• Street lighting should have a uniform height and be a maximum of 25 feet high above the street.
• Pedestrian lighting should have a uniform height and be a maximum of 15 feet above the walkway.
• Lighting should be coordinated with tree locations, proposed landscaping, buildings, driveways, on-street parking, street furnishings, signage, and sub-street structures.
• Step or bollard lighting should be used to clearly illuminate level changes and handrails for stairs and ramps. Bollard height shall not exceed 42 inches and should only be used where a pole light fixture is not appropriate.

– Storm water
Storm water management off eras a twofold opportunity:
Addressing water quantity and quality from the site while enhancing public spaces and wildlife habitat.
• Storm water management elements such as bioswales, rain gardens and rain harvesting features should be integrated into the campus and building site design.
• Storm water management, grading design and planting selection and location should be fully coordinated to slow the conveyance and discharge of water from the site, and provide for groundwater recharge and planting irrigation.
• Plantings should be supported, to the greatest extent possible, by detained or captured rainwater, and through drought resistant and native planting principles. Supplemental irrigation should be confined to building entry areas.
• To minimize erosion, planting designs should be fully coordinated with the grading of walkways, parking lots/islands, lawns, pedestrian plazas/terraces and streets.
• Fine surface grading in the archaeological site should slow and reduce sheet flows. Groupings of trees should be planted to further reduce run-off.

2.3.1 Provide for physical comfort
Design for physical comfort is fundamental to livability. It requires attention to human sensory experience. People are going to do only those outdoor activities that are absolutely necessary or to pass the streets by car if the environment is not physically comfortable and attractive. Other desirable activities that create pedestrian places, such as window shopping, will not take place. It is necessary to provide the physical comfort and it requires considering about the sun, shadows, rains and snow, temperature and wind for human comfort. It also requires controlling physical nuisances such as noise, pollution and traffic.

2.3.2 Form and Shape
Streets play a significant role in determining urban form more than any other elements of urban form. Streets contain some characteristics that can distinguish a city form from others (Jacob 1993). They help to determine the period when the city was built, its geographical characteristics, the underlying functions, design or political philosophies, technological demands and the local culture )Sholihah, 2005).
All street have a setting in street patterns and blocks, and amidst buildings and spaces at a finer scale (Jacobs, 1993). Maybe it is the contrast of one street with surrounding ones, in size or direction or shape, or in the nature and size of the buildings that are found on it, which sets the one street apart and makes it special. Perhaps a unique location is a critical ingredient to some best streets. It is well, then, to be familiar with the settings of the streets that are of interest. They are enormously different one from another, in their patterns, the size and shapes of their blocks, the amount of space that they consume, and in their relative complexity.
Some street makes a sense for you like that you are indeed in a place, special place, a handsome place, a safe place, a welcoming place, a place where you might wish to live. A place that is physically comfortable. In some places, narrowness and enclosure and intimacy bring a feeling of safety because this kind of place limit the speed of vehicles, then it is safe to play for kids and parent can feel safe.
A good urban street is always good in a context. A Street connects one place to another and it provides a network of routes. The form and shape of streets make them memorable or special in people mind. A Street can be divided spatially as street walls and street spaces (Eliss, 1986). Street spaces refer to the volumetric entity created by the street wall. It appears as a bounded configuration and acts as the exterior room of the city. Meanwhile, a street wall is an enclosure of street space, which can be formed as a series of buildings or landscapes.
There are two distinct physical conceptions of cities. In the first conception, it appears that the streets and public squares are shaped from an original block of solid material. The other main idea is a city has the form of open parkland into which building has been introduced as three-dimensional objects sitting on and within the landscape (Moughtin, 1992).

Figure 2.3: A Physical conception of the street: (a) street-solid block street wall (b) street-open parkland (landscape) as street wall
(Source: ????)

In addition, there are two main types of street space, i.e., inflected (curved) and uninflected (straight). In uninflected street space the whole street space is perceived in one looking and displays a monumental physical form. Whereas in the inflected street space gradually become apparent due to its curvature, the facades are varied within a certain material coherence of style, creating richness and controlled diversity that seems to be absent in the straight street space and it is much more in keeping with human figure rather than monumental physical form (Trancik, 1986).

Figure 2.4: Type of streetscape: inflected and uninflected showing the different visual perception of a streetscape. Source: (Looking at London, Kutcher, 1978)

Some streets represent the very best of a type: the old, long-continuing medieval street that usually turns at least a little. Mostly these kinds of streets are narrow, has strength that it depends on tall buildings and also has a certain sense of mystery. An inability to see form one end to another is a bit of inviting of mystery (Jacob, 1993).
The Form of streetscape as perceived by pedestrian and motorist is different. shows that pedestrian (Walker) perceives more detailed features of street space rather than the person involved in high-speed activities (motorist), as shown in the Figure 2.5 (Rapoport, 1987).

Figure 2.5: Perceptual characteristic of streetscape according to motorists and pedestrians. (Source: Rapoport, 1987)

In the figure on above (Figure 2.6), can realizing of street perception by pedestrians and motorist; as can be seen the pedestrian can see more details of the street then pedestrian can realize better the meaning of street in different functions (Rapoport, 1987).

2.3.3 Street Types
The classification of street types in Table 2.1 talks about the street in terms of the capacity. It explains that how any kind of movement can be accommodated safely and the character that mentions the role of a street in the urban realm and the types of building and landscape that line it.

Table 2.1: Street types that combine capacity and character
Conventional capacity-based terminology combined capacity and characters of a Street
Primary distributor Main road
Routes providing connections across the city
District distributor Avenue or Boulevard
Formal, generous landscaping
Local distributor High Street
Mixed uses, active frontages
Access road Street Square
Mainly residential, building lines encouraging traffic calming
Cul-de-sac Mews/courtyard
Shared space for parking and other uses

According to Table 2.1, urban streets are categorized in five groups with attention to their capacity and their character; the first is the main streets in the city, that these kinds of routes providing connections across the city, also they called as primary distributor.
The second one is the district distributor, such as avenue or boulevard; they are formal and generous landscaping. The third is the local distributor or in characterize is a high street that has mixed uses and active frontages. The fourth one is access roads of the city.
In characterization, street square that they are mainly residential street in city and building lines encouraging traffic calming. The last type of the street is cul-de-sac. They are mews or courtyard that shared space for parking and other uses for urban users.
Some planners suggested narrowing the street to make room for new development. People are looking for neighborhoods and cities that allow them easy, quick access to shopping, recreation, work and business on foot or by bicycle, preferably. The cities that succeed and grow are built to the scale of the human foot (Sword, 2008).

Figure 2.6: Street Types
(Source: ???)

2.3.4 Channel of Movement
As a channel of movement, street connects one place to another. The street provides a link between buildings, both within the street and in the city at large. As a link, it facilitates the movement of people, as pedestrians or within vehicles, and the movement of goods. In correlation to this function, Eichner and Tobey have identified various activities regarding the use of street as a channel of movement (Table2.2) (Eichner et al., 1987).

Table 2.2: Street a channel of movement

Vehicular Circulation
Pedestrian Circulation
• Through movement
• Picking up/dropping off passengers
• Curb side parking
• Access to parking
• Buses
• On-street service
• Off-street service
• Emergency vehicle • Through movement
• Waiting for, boarding and alighting from vehicles (buses, taxis, cars)
• Entering and leaving subways
• Crossing street
• Entering and leaving buildings

As can be seen in Table 2.2, streets as a channel of the movement have various activities for pedestrians and vehicles. The first function is a way for movement among the city for both, pedestrian and vehicles.
The second role is picking up and dropping off passengers for vehicles and for pedestrians, waiting for, boarding and alighting from vehicles such as buses, taxis and cars. The third function of this channel of movement for pedestrians is entering and leaving subways but for vehicles is curb side parking and also access to parking. This channel of movement is a crossing place for pedestrians and on-street, off-street services for vehicles. And the other role of the street as a channel of movement for vehicles is for emergency vehicles and entering and leaving buildings for pedestrians.
The Public movement involves walking, cycling, and driving cars and motorcycles. The evolving of various means of transportation drives the street to provide space for them.

Figure 2.7: The street realm is composed of the travel way realm, the pedestrian realm and the adjacent land use.

Many streets have become inundated with motorized vehicles to such an extent that the pedestrian and public life have almost been squeezed out. Furthermore, in many streets in North America walking and public life has been completely phased out from the nature of street activities. Whereas streets, such as in Barcelona, Copenhagen, Curitiba (Brazil) and Melbourne (Australia), have striven to regain a reasonable balance between traffic, market and meeting places (Gehl, 2002).
Today, streets are mostly a place for vehicles, speed and a way to access to destination for people around the world. For modernist the street is a space that helps you to reach from point A to point B and not a place to live in it (Jacobs 1993), the street is a place designed to encourage and make perfect a new urban lifestyles, to be replaced by an emphasis on the purely ‘functional’ role of the estate, as reflected in its planning and house design. The streets functions are affecting on its style.
The layout of streets served no other purpose than allowing for the free flow of traffic, with no attempt made to segregate housing and traffic. Therefore planners and designers should try to find a solution to this problem that everywhere people faced by the conflict of traffic and urban life, especially in streets.
Main streets are often designed to provide directing pedestrian experience thought to encourage the quantity and quality of social interaction necessary for a sense of community to appear.
Streets should not be designed just for accommodating the movement of motor vehicles-a prime consideration is that they meet the needs of pedestrians and cyclists. Streets should have access to all, easy to find and easy to get to. The best streets will be those where it is possible to see other people and to meet them; all kinds of people, not just of one class or color or age (Jacobs, 1993).
Urban planners are developed main streets for frequently the vehicle used to increase social interaction among residents of a neighborhood as Main Streets are often within walking distance of residential areas, providing easy accessibility for the community and reducing the reliance on auto-dependent shopping (Pendola, 2007).
Successful communities require a full range of local services and facilities, including commercial, educational, health, spiritual and civic uses. These need to be comfortably located and connected to residential areas with safe and comfortable routes (Llewelyn, 2000).
2.4 Social Interaction
The street, as a social space, can play multiple roles and offer social contact and interaction, social awareness and learning, and social cohesion. Additionally, there is a rich literature on the history of the street that engages the subject of the historically changing cultural meaning of the street. However, there is limited research on the street as a behavior setting for everyday activities and social interaction.
Public social contact shapes our personal identity, fosters learning and influences our social behavior. Creating street environments where people have the opportunity to formally organize, such as for a public outdoor market or festival, or informally gather, such as to pursue recreational, leisure or social activity, are both necessary and desirable. For example social greetings, conversations and passive contacts, where people simply see and hear other people, are those social activities that shape our personal identity by how we choose to respond. This type of social activity depends on the presence of people in the same physical environment, whether it is a street or a public park. For this to occur spontaneously, these activities need to be in a safe and comfortable environment that supports open public social contact.
Streets as good urban public spaces are required for the social and psychological health of modern communities. In addition, streets are public spaces for the experience of public life and social interaction (Mehta, 2007). Sociability is a large part of why cities exist and the streets are the major if not the only public place for that sociability to develop (Jacobs, 1993).
The street is an environment that offers multiple lessons for children just by watching people and their activities. Also for the education of adults in learning, by observing the way people do things differently, as mentioned by (Lofland, 1998). Additionally, seeing other people engaged in activities can be an inspiration to engage in new activities.
Streets also act as an arena for social interaction. People use the street as a media to interact with each other. It is in street space, where people can see and are to be seen. In 1987, Eichner and Tobey have identified several social uses of the street which are shown in Table2.2.

Table 2.3: Street as a Social Space
(Source: ???)
• Strolling and window-shopping
• Resting
• People-watching
• Vendors
• Telephones
• Newspapers
• Art works and banners
• ” schmoozing”
• Eating
• Waiting
• Orientation/information
• Street performers
• Drinking fountains
• Fountains

Streets as a social place (Table 2.3), include social activities and amenities such as strolling and window-shopping, resting, people-watching, vendors, telephones, newspapers, art works and banners, schmoozing, eating, waiting, orientation and information, street performers, drinking fountains and fountains.
In streets, most of the social interactions take place in the pedestrian area. There are three categories of pedestrian activities which are necessary activities, optional activities and social activities (Gehl, 2002).

2.4.1 Necessary Activities
They refer to all the activities that have to be done regularly, such as going to school, waiting for the bus and going to work. These types of activities occur regardless of the quality of the physical environment because people are compelled to carry them out.

Figure 2.8: Necessary activities in the pedestrian area; people use the pedestrian area for daily activities
(Source: ???)
The necessary activities are including all kind of informal activities along the pedestrian area, like selling foods, clothes and retails.

2.4.2 Formal and Informal Street Activities
Street activities are representing people’s values, aspiration and urban culture. they are often discussed as “formal” and “informal” activities. The dichotomy between the formal and informal street activities is mainly concerned with the legal aspect, economic aspect, characteristics of the activities and specific location (Bromley, 1979; Rapoport, 1987; Gehl, 1987, Korff, 2000).
Concerning the character and economic aspect of human activities, the formal sector refers to the modern sector, to which the big enterprises, banks and shopping centers belong, while the informal sector refers to hawkers, peddlers, petty commodity producers and scavengers (Korff, 2000). Apart from that, a simple division of formal and informal sector does not provide a proper tool for the analysis or description of the economy of a big city, since the two sectors are in the same unit of economic mechanisms.
The characteristic of informal and formal sector based on ILO report in 1972 (Bromley, 1979) is presented as follow:

Table 2.4: Characteristics of Formal and Informal Sector
(Source: ???)
Informal activities are a way of doing things characterized by: The characteristic of formal sector activities are the observations of these, namely:
(a) Ease of entry;
(b) Reliance on indigenous resources;
(c) Family ownership of enterprises;
(d) Small scale of operation;
(e) Labour-intensive and adapted technology;
(f) Skills acquired outside the formal school system;
(g) Unregulated and competitive markets. (a) Difficult entry;
(b) Frequent reliance on overseas resources;
(c) Corporate ownership;
(d) Large scale of operation;
(e) Capital-intensive and often imported technology;
(f) Formally acquired skills, often expatriate;
(g) Protected markets (through tariffs, quotas and trade licenses).

One of the most important distinctions between the formal and informal sector is due to the legal aspect. Most of the governments in the world officially have recognized the formal sector but not informal one and assists in terms of allocation of favorable locations, loans, subsidies, tariff protection and management training to the formal sector (Timothy, 1997).
In brief, formal activities can be regarded as activities within the buildings of both sides of the street, comprising big scale trading, legal and formal in nature and taking place in the private spaces of the city. On the contrary, informal street activities, or in other terms “life between buildings” (Gehl, 1987), “informal sector” (Bromley, 1979; Pena, 1999; Korff, 2000), “street activities” (Rapoport, 1987), and “street culture” (Idid, 2004), comprise of all the activities taking place in the street space, informal and public in nature, performed communally and culturally acknowledged as people’s values and aspirations (street culture).
The scope of the informal street activities is not only limited to economic-based informal street activities or street trading. Social activities including all communal activities in street spaces or spaces between buildings are also considered as informal street activities (Rapoport, 1987; Gehl, 1987, 2002). Furthermore, since the use of streets in primarily cultural-based (Rapoport, 1987), cultural events along the street space or cultural-based informal street activities are also part of the informal street activities.

2.4.3 Optional Activities (urban recreation)
They refer to the activities which people are tempted to do when climatic conditions, surrounding and the place are generally inviting and attractive. These activities are especially sensitive to quality. They only occur when quality is high.
Recreation or fun is the spending of time in a manner designed for a curative refreshment of one’s body or mind. While leisure is more likely a form of entertainment or rest, recreation is active for the participant but in a refreshing and diverting manner. As people known streets as an active place, therefore the activities on this great urban element have an important role. Activities in the streets can separate into two groups of activities, formal and informal activities.
Streets are an important part of public open space in the city. In urban areas, streets constitute a significant part of the public open space and are seen as the most important symbols of the public realm.
Social commentators and scholars suggest that people’s image of a city is often that of its streets. It is the streets that represent the outdoors. People depend on streets for functional, social, and leisure activities; for travel, shopping, play, meeting, and interaction with other people; and even for relaxation.

Figure 2.9: Optional activities in the pedestrian area; people use the pedestrian area as a place to see and to be seen (Source: ???)

For the streets to work as social places the traffic must be slowed. The best way to do this is to design streets that encourage drivers to drive with caution. The arrangement of buildings, spaces and activities can act as a natural traffic calmer and has the double advantage of being visually less intrusive and far more pleasant for pedestrians and cyclists. These activities are some kind of activities that people like to see or to be seen like people-watching, resting, and waiting and so on.
They refer to the activities which occur whenever people move about in the same spaces. They involve the passive and active participation of people with others like watching, listening and conversing.

Figure 2.10: Social activities in the pedestrian area; active and passive activities occur along the pedestrian area (Source: ???)

Some argue that the social affordances offered for the presence of people in public spaces like streets might be more important than the physical affordances that the environment offers (Hester, 1984).
A Street is a place for people to walk with some rest, recreation, safe walking and totally passing their free times and mostly by walking on foot. It is on foot that people can have a chance to see other people or maybe talking with them and others also have chance to meet and experience them. It is difficult to separate physical feature from social and economic activities that bring value to our experiences; if people cannot walk along a street or go from one side to the other, then they are not likely to meet anyone there. Therefore the streets area is considered as social places within the city.
Street is the busiest outdoor open space in the city. People who live and work in urban areas spend much of their time: driving, walking, sitting and playing in this outdoor open space (Jacobs, 1993). In addition, Vitruvius described” the street as a scene, as the back drop in a theatre” (Moughtin, 1992).The Street is not only a means of access but also an area for social expression and manifestation. The street is the river of life in the city, the place where passengers come together and give us a chance to meet each other and continue our social angle of life in society. Streets also give us an opportunity to adjust our psychological aspect (Whyte, 1989).
Social activities in urban open spaces have been used as a measure of the town’s vitality and liveliness and as an indicator of the satisfaction of people with their physical surroundings (Mehta 2007). Social identities and social practices are shaped by people’s experiences of the street.
Communication remains a major purpose of streets, along with public access to the property, and these roles have received plentiful attention, particularly in the latter half of the twentieth century. The people of cities understand the symbolic, ceremonial, social and political roles of streets, not just those of movement and access. As well as to see, the street is a place to be seen.
Some parts of the street were able better to support stationary, lingering, and sustained activities. These activities included sitting, standing, lying, eating/drinking, reading, using a laptop, shopping, window-shopping, playing a game or performing, smoking, walking pets, pushing a stroller, and vending and were not mutually exclusive.
Social activities included talking, eating or drinking, walking pets, window-shopping, playing a game, and performing or watching a performance on the street with one or more companions and were not mutually exclusive.

2.4.4 Social-based Informal Street Activities
Gehl defines social activities as all activities that depend on the presence of other in public spaces. Social activities include children at play, greeting and conversations, communal activities of various kinds and finally as the most widespread social activity passive contacts, that is, simply seeing and hearing other people (Gehl, 1987). The character of social activities varies, depending on the context in which they occur. In city centers, social activities will generally be more superficial, with the majority being passive contacts seeing and hearing a great number of unknown people. But even this limited activity can be very appealing.
Human participation in street life is eternally required, both in active or passive forms. It is here in the streets where people can celebrate different kinds of expressions. Since the street is a political space, political celebrations, as well as demonstrations can take place. Participation in the life of a street involves the ability of people who occupy buildings (including houses and stores) to add something to the street, individually or collectively, color or in altering the buildings themselves. Responsibility, including maintenance, comes with participation (Jacobs, 1993).
The best streets encourage participants. People stop to talk or maybe they sit and watch, as passive participants, taking in what the street has to offer. Participation in the life of a street involves the ability of people who occupy building including houses and stores to add something to the street, individually or collectively, to be part of it. The best streets are those that can be remembered. They leave strong, long continuing positive impressions.
2.5 Commercial and Economic
Main streets, commercial corridors that tend to serve as neighborhood centers. Streets are places of social and commercial encounter and exchange. It is on streets that people provide their living costs, reach to their incomes by commerce and exchange. Therefore the other important role of streets is the commercial and economic aspect. People like to come in commercial streets because mostly they like shopping or they have to do some necessary business, sell and buy and exchanging in commercial streets.
Some streets are places to do business for an exchange of services or goods; (Rykwert, 1986 and Jacobs, 1993) it is the commercial function of streets. People use streets as a place to offer goods and a place for display as much as they were ‘allowed’. Pedestrians see, compare, discuss with their companions, bargain and decide whether to buy an item or not.

2.5.1 Economic-based Informal Street Activities
The economic-based informal street activities also called “the underground economy” and “the shadow economy” refer to the small business, controlled by the owner, taking place in small space outside of a building, like the business of street vendors, hawker, street artist like singer, painter, street comedian, street entertainer, etc. The informal activity is obviously not a temporary feature of the Third World cities, but a characteristic of highly developed cities as well, as the studies of New York and other European cities indicated (Castells, 1989).
Street trading in many cities of the world is a common phenomenon. While walking along the streets, especially in Asia, there are street painters, stalls selling food, local art, merchandise and clothes, etc. they occupy part of sidewalks, corridors, and other public spaces along the street for trading. They are situated side by side with the formal activities in modern buildings, such as high-rise towers, department store and shopping complex. These formal and informal street activities complement each other in the name of street life.

Figure 2.11: Economic-based informal street activities offer numerous kinds of street trading along the street space

If designers can develop and design streets so that they are wonderful, fulfilling places to be community building places, attractive public places for all people of cities and neighborhoods, then we will have successfully designed about one-third of the city directly and will have had an immense impact on the rest. When cities are designed around cars and traffic, they fill with more cars and traffic although if we begin to plan cities for people and places, we will get more people and places.
If the street is designed for low speeds, pedestrians, cyclists and vehicles can mix safely. Generally speaking conventional streets provide the most convenient, direct routes to places which cyclists and pedestrians, like everyone else, want to get to (Llewelyn, 2000).
In Asian cities, streets, besides being a public space, have traditionally served as a place to do commerce. While people use the street as a place for trading, numerous other forms of economic-based informal street activities, such as of street vendors and street musicians, occupy most part of the street spaces.
2.6 Cultural Activities
2.6.2 Cultural-based Informal Street Activities
Cultural-based informal street activities refer to parades, street events, art performances, street musicians, and traditional foods, culture-based goods such as crafts and etc that form the life of the street. the street is where the actions are (Rudofsky,1969). activities in any given setting is primarily culturally based in that is the result of unwritten rules, customs, traditions, habits and the prevailing lifestyle and definition of activities appropriate to that setting (Rapoport, 1987).
In 1987, Rapoport argues that cultural variables are primary for any activity, including walking and others, occurring in streets. It is a culture that structures behavior and helps explain the use or non-use of streets and other urban spaces or of other settings. Thus, the use of streets by pedestrians is primarily culturally based on a physical environment does not determine behavior (Rapoport, 1987). Physical environment, however, can be supportive or inhibiting. Given this culturally based predisposition toward obeying unwritten rules of proper street use, people can also be influenced by physical variables.
In establishing a successful cultural quarter, indicators of good cultural activity as cultural venues at a variety of scales, including small and medium, festivals and events, availability of workspaces for artists and low-cost cultural producers, small-firm economic development in the studio users, managed workspaces for office and studio users, location of arts development agencies and companies, arts and media training and education, art in the environment, community arts development initiatives, complimentary daytime uses, complimentary evening uses and stable arts funding (Montgomery, 2003).
Streets are publicly acknowledging joints for the entertainment of peer group, family members and guests alike. A lively and successful street demands a balanced mixture of different user group and activities (Moudon, 1987).
The street is a movement to watch and pass the people of fleeting faces and forms, changing postures and dress. It is possible to stand in one place or to sit and watch the show. The show is not always pleasant, not always smiles or greetings or lovers hand in hand. There are cripples and beggars and people with abnormalities. Streets are where you meet people which are a basic reason to have cities in any case. People who really do not like other people, even to see them in any numbers, have good reason not to live in cities or to live isolated from city streets. Urban streets are one of the important physical elements of a city. A Street is a place where human activities are concentrated (Jacobs, 1993).

2.7 Summary
A great street should be a most desirable place to be, to spent time, to live, to play, and to work, at the same time that it markedly contributes to what a city should be. Streets are settings for activities that bring people together. A great street should help make a community: should facilitate people acting and interacting to achieve in concert what they might not achieve alone (Jacob, 1993).
The street is expected to house the variety of small businesses and specialty shops. Many jurisdictions require wide streets that would spoil the intimate scale of pedestrian-oriented main streets. Main streets also serve as important public and civic spaces that often host parades, street festivals, and expressions of free speech. A lively street is defined as a street with the presence of a number of people engaged in a variety of generally stationary and sustained activities, particularly those activities that are social in nature.
These positions and activities include standing, sitting, lying, talking, eating and drinking, reading, using a laptop, window-shopping, smoking, vending, playing a game or musical instrument, listening to musicians, and so on. Streets that support stationary activities provide opportunities for short-term, low-intensity contacts that constitute easy interactions with other people in a relaxed way.



3.1 Introduction
This chapter explained the research methodology used in the study. This investigation suggested the descriptive research method that can be used to summarize or describe a collection of data. This method wants to find the frequencies or averages amongst the questionnaire and objectives. This investigation referred to a case study as it is usual for environmental studies.
The case-study approach is particularly suitable for individual researchers because it gives an opportunity for one aspect of a problem to study in some depth within a limited time scale. One of the oldest research methods is the case study method. It is an in-depth study method of one or more variables (Jackson, 2006). It provided the researcher with a thorough background of the area. It is a detailed examination of one setting (Wellington et al., 2007).
This individual study chooses four different street types in Esfahan in Iran as the case study. In Iran like most Asian societies, the street is the center of social interaction. At first step, it will introduce the locations and history of case studies and in the second step presents how data is collected. At last step, it presents data analysis for this investigation.
However, observation and interviews are most frequently used in case studies. This study chose a survey method to obtain information, which can analyze, patterns extracted, and comparisons made. In surveys, all respondents will be asked the same questions in, as far as possible, the same circumstance and it is necessary to ensure that all questions mean the same to all respondents. For this research prepare a list of questions about The People Demands of Landscape Architecture as a Part of Urban Design in Esfahan Streets and will ask about 100 people to realize what The People Demands of Landscape Architecture as a Part of Urban Design in Esfahan Streets.
3.2 Location of Study Area and its History
The locations of the case study are four different types of streets in Esfahan province in Iran:
a) Chaharbagh Abbasi Boulevard as a Heritage area, car-free street and mostly with the commercial land use.
b) Chaharbagh Khajou Street as a historic old street with mixed land use of residential and commercial.
c) Aineh Khaneh (translation: House of mirrors) Boulevard as a residential and recreational boulevard because of its location by the river side and Great Park.
d) Mir Fendereski Stree as newer mixed uses by commercial and residential.
3.2.1 Introduction of Esfahan, The city of case study
Esfahan (historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan is a city in Iran and is the capital of Esfahan Province. It is the third largest city of modern-day Iran, is famed for its natural and architectural splendor. Most accounts of its beauty refer to the Safavid period: Isfahan was the storied capital of Iran from 1598 to 1722 CE, but the city’s history stretches back more than 2500 years.
Esfahan has a population of approximately 1.5 million, making it the third largest city in Iran after Tehran and Mashhad.
Esfahan is an important city as it is located at the intersection of the two principles north–south and east–west routes that traverse Iran. It was once one of the largest cities in the world. It flourished from 1050 to 1722, particularly in the 16th and 17th centuries under the Safavid dynasty when it became the capital of Persia for the second time in its history. Even today the city retains much of its past glory. It is famous for its Persian–Islamic architecture, having many beautiful boulevards, covered bridges, palaces, mosques, and minarets, and the city also has many historical buildings, monuments, paintings and artifacts. The fame of Isfahan led to the Persian proverb “Esfah?n nesf-e- jah?n ast”: Isfahan is half of the world.
The Naghsh-e Jahan Square in Isfahan is one of the largest city squares in the world. UNESCO has designated it a World Heritage Site.

Figure 3.1: location of the case study, Esfahan, Iran

3.2.2 Urban Morphology, typologies and Site Development

Figure 3.2: Esfahan Urban Morphology until 17th Century
Every city must identify the range of street typologies it encompasses. To ensure that new street designs are suitable for the given context, existing streets must be documented and analyzed as part of the comprehensive public space network.
Evaluate each street project to balance the needs of different transportation modes within the given context and culture. Ensure the designs serve social, environmental, and economic needs and functions.

Figure 3.3: Case Study Urban Morphology
Figure 3.4: The case study (Four Streets in Esfahan, Iran)

In this investigation choose four different type of streets: a) Pedestrian-Only Street (Historic Street), b) Neighborhood Main Street, c) Waterfront and Parkside Street, d) Commercial Shared Street. Definition
a) Pedestrian-only streets prioritize people and are typically most appropriate in corridors with commercial activity on both edges of the street. They are strategically selected streets in which pedestrian volume is high and vehicular traffic is restricted. These streets offer opportunities for diverse activities such as shopping or sitting, dining or dawdling, promenading or performing. When placed, designed, and maintained well, pedestrian-only streets become a destination and result in economic benefits for adjacent businesses.
b) Neighborhood main streets lie at the heart of everyday life, offering walkable destinations such as restaurants, shops, services, and transit stops. Pedestrian volumes should be accommodated by well-designed sidewalks. Traffic speeds should be limited, and key transit routes and cycle lanes prioritized. These streets must be redesigned to better serve the needs of multiple users.
c) Waterfront promenades and neighborhood parks are key destinations in many cities. Designing the streets adjacent to these areas can help extend the public space into surrounding neighborhoods and invite multiple users to enjoy them.
d) Shared commercial streets are designed to permit easy loading and unloading of vehicles at designated hours. They are designed to slow traffic speeds using pedestrian volume, design, and other cues.
3.2.3 The case study
a) Chaharbagh Abbasi Boulevard as a Heritage area, car-free street and mostly with the commercial land use.
Chahar Bagh Boulevard (translation: Four Gardens) is a historical avenue in Isfahan constructed in the Safavid era of Iran.

Figure 3.5: Chahar Bagh Avenue, Esfahan

The avenue, historically, is the most famous in all of Persia. It connects the northern parts of the city to the southern sections and is about 6 kilometers long. On the east side of this street, there are the Hasht Behesht and Chehel Sotoun gardens. This Great Avenue has divided to three sections or parts:
– Chaharbagh Pa’in, or lower Chaharbagh is the northern section of the avenue.
– Chaharbagh Abbasi, is the middle section of the avenue.
– Chaharbagh Bala, or upper Chaharbagh, is the southern section of the avenue.
In this research just investigate on the middle part of this Boulevard named by Chahar Bagh Abbasi.
ChaharbaghAbbasi is one of Isfahan’s old streets, located between Darvazeh-Dowlat and Si-o-Seh Pol; the two sections; ChaharbaghAbbasi and Upper Chaharbagh were designed in the era of Shah Abbas the first, and approximately date back to 1000 Hijra. Allahverdi Khan Bridge has dividedChaharbagh into two sections: Upper Chaharbagh and ChaharbaghAbbasi, and has been a connecting rout between upper Chaharbagh and lower Chaharbagh (Saheb News – AtiyyehMardani) .
In this regard, Chardin says “This passage is the prettiest passage I have ever seen and heard about”; Chaharbagh can be divided into its constituent elements; appearance and landscape, and into its component parts: the floor, walls, skyline, urban furniture, as well as the form and activity going on in it. This street was in the form a boulevard starting from the front of Jahan-Nama Mansion, and passing through Si-o-Seh Pol reaching Hezar-Jarib Garden. In the middle of ChaharBagh Avenue there was a stream passing all its length, which had pools with marble fountains in regular intervals, and due to the slope of ChaharBagh Avenue, there were some small watersheds in this stream, which added to the street’s beauty. The gardens in Chaharbagh Avenue had straight and regular walls, which attracted Pietro Della Valle’s attention, and he has referred to them twice in his travelogue. All the walls were net-like, and pedestrians could see the wooded, refreshing, and flowery space of the gardens, their pools, fountains, waterfalls and central Kushk in a vague, stimulating and inviting way (Ansari, 2001). However, unfortunately, now, there has remained nothing from the glory and beauty of this street, but a name, shadow and its flooring have been buried.
Isfahan Municipality has started to reconstruct and organize this axis in order to revive the historic-cultural identity of ChaharbaghAbbasi. Stating that the implementation of the fifth phase is difficult and requires time, Jafari, CEO of Renovation and Improvement Organization of Isfahan Municipality said, “The west body of Chaharbagh will be gradually revived, the flooring of Chaharbagh axis will be done after the completion of subway station operations; and then in two phases, Chaharbagh will be closed off to vehicles. In the first phase, the entry of private vehicles into Chaharbagh will be prohibited, and in the second phase, Chaharbagh axis will completely become a walkway”. Pointing out that the project of building the body of Eastern Chaharbagh has been designed to show the contemporary architecture as well as being a walkway, he continued, “A commercial complex has also been planned in this project.” Stating that the western body will be revived by the owners, CEO of Renovation and Improvement Organization of Isfahan Municipality stipulated that the western body of Chaharbagh is worn out, many buildings in this body are old, and the facades of the buildings should be harmonious, and that they must be built based on the approved project. He added that facilities will be provided for the issuance of building permits to revive the western body. Mahmood Darvish says, “If the project of making Chaharbagh a walkway along with the revival and reconstruction of buildings of historical values is carried out, we can have one of the prettiest streets in the area. Moreover, if we can make apparent the structure of the street and the streams under the current flooring of Chaharbagh, the historical value of the current Chaharbagh will highly be increased. In addition, with regard to the latest news about ChaharbaghAbbasi’s becoming a walkway, AbolghasemGolestannezhad says, “ChaharbaghAbbasi is supposed to become a walkway, but its executive operations start after determining the status of the subway and its stations in this area. Chaharbagh, as a historical axis, is one of the special plans of the detailed plan of Isfahan, and in the expertise steps, the consultants and experts in this field must deal with its details and prepare the plan of Chaharbagh.” According to this evidence, we must say that the necessary measures for turning Chaharbagh into a walkway, which is considered one of the terms to “restore it”, require technical standards for construction not only in the body of Chaharbagh, but also in areas between ChaharbaghandShamsabadi Street and Bagh-e Goldasteh Street. In this regard, with Chaharbagh Avenue becoming a walkway, maybe we can hope that people can get a little bit away from the smoke and noise of vehicles, and consider Chaharbagh as a safe place for recreation (Keshavarz, Saheb News, 2013).

Figure 3.6: Chahar Bagh Avenue, Esfahan, 17th Century

The heritage zone and pattern of the routes in heritage part of the Esfahan, where the some part of the research is conducted, are studied. Study Areas Esfahan city center is a conservational zone which is rich in historical and various cultural values. It has seen some of the most profound historical events happened to the country.
The cultural heritage of Esfahan is an attraction for visitors who wish to see the historical value. Therefore, conservation zone of Esfahan is selected as a Part of the case study due to its richness in different variables studying in this research such as physical elements like form and shape and furniture, as a channel of movement, social interaction, commercial and economic aspect and recreation and Different face of pedestrians activities.
Esfahan is an outstanding example of architecture and types of buildings, architectural features are one of the variables of this study.
Figure 3.7: Chahar Bagh Abbasi in different time and situation

Chaharbagh Abbasi Avenue has located in heart of Esfahan Provence and in middle of the heritage site of the city.
As shown in the map the Chahar Bagh street is an important traffic circulation zone in Esfahan Province and also have important commercial and historical role in this area. But now a day The middle part of This great street, the case study zone, Chahar Bagh Abbasi change its role in traffic and turned to car-free zone that just only uses by cyclists and pedestrians and introduces as a heritage zone. Presently, roads around this area can be categorized into the collectors and local accesses. The collectors are generally 9 – 15 meters in width while the access roads are generally 5 – 9 meters. Back lanes are narrower still, at 3 – 4 meters.
The collectors here have the important role of distributing traffic from and to the main roads, like Shams Abadi Street, Bagh Goldaste Avenue and the Kamal Esmaeel Avenue.
The Chahar Bagh Street is one of the most important streets in this conservation zone because it is a strong axis in the commercial aspect, social role, attract tourism and traffic circulation in this area. Therefore this street should have a special meaning for locals, tourists and other kinds of people that use this street one time or frequently. Because of the strong role of this street in this conservation zone of Esfahan Province, it was chosen as the case study.
Chahar Bagh Street is the first commercial main street in Esfahan. The street was a mixed use area where residential and commercial were the most dominant activities. It has gradually transformed and commercial activities are more dominant now. The street is the most vibrant part of the Conservation Zone and this is visually evident.
3.2.4. Mixed Use and Street Character
This area is a commercial and conservation zone in Esfahan that its history referred to 1613 and developed until today. It is rich with urban elements and historical values and mostly has commercial and tourists attraction buildings.
Chahar Bagh Street was a busy commercial main street offering a large variety of retail and service facilities for the local residents. As it was in the past, This Street is still the main shopping street with plenty to offer although the nature of trades and services has changed accordingly with time and demand.
b) Chaharbagh Khajou Street as a historic old street with mixed land use of residential and commercial.
The second street of the case study is another historical street in Esfahan, Chahar Bagh Khajou Street. To compare with the Chahar Bagh Abbasi Avenue the wide is smaller scale but with the similar style and different activities.
Here is a residential and commercial mixed use but the residential aspect is stronger.

Figure 3.8: Chahar Bagh Khajou in different time and situation

In this street is a natural water source named Makinee Khajoo. This source is very old and famous and today make it as a small pool with a fountain.

c) Aineh Khaneh (translation: House of mirrors) Boulevard as a residential and recreational boulevard because of its location by the riverside and Great Park.
The Third Street in the case study is a Boulevard along the park riverside called Ayeneh Khaneh (translation: mirror’s house). One side is occupied by residential houses and the northern side is river beach covered by trees, shrubs, park and walkway.

Figure 3.9: Ayeneh Khaneh Boulevard in different time and situation

d) Mir Fendereski Stree as newer mixed uses by commercial and residential.
The fourth street of the case study is Mir Fendereski Street, a mixed use street with residential and commercial activities parallel with Ayeneh Khaneh Boulevard. The role of this street at first was local connection street but after years it comes to an active commercial street beside the residential factors from the past period.

Figure 3.10: Mir Fendereski Street at different time and situation

3.3 Methods of data collection
One task for a researcher is to make the unseen visible, internal events and processes external and private experiences public. To do so, the researcher must select the proper measurement technique to collect data, and then ensure that it is accurate. Questionnaires, surveys, and interviews are all measures. The bulk of the data for this study was collected from secondary sources such as past study reports, documentation and archives.
In addition, primary data were also collected specifically in the form of a survey questionnaire and interview with residents and local people. Finally, continued with observation in the study area. The survey provides the researcher with a methodology for asking people to find out how respondents think and behave. Indeed, the survey method is important for the researcher to study relationships among variables.

3.3.1 Instrumentation
The methods of data collection used in this study were:
i. Documentation and archives
ii. Questionnaires
iii. Observation
iv. Interview Documentation and Archives
Document reviews analyze existing records and other documents not gathered or developed specifically for the evaluation. The most important use of documents is to corroborate and augment evidence from other sources. The method chosen to collect data must be determined from an extensive literature search to determine what tools are available that will get at the question asked? The methods to collects the data must be reliable and consistency must be obtained.
For the study, the targeted documents and archival information included the following: organizational files, minutes of the meeting, written reports, organizational brochures, manuals, references, procedural documents, announcements, notices, photographs and other visual presentations such as charts and diagrams.
Over the years, several studies have been carried out covering the Study Area. The aim of these review of past studies is first to collect baseline data from secondary sources and secondly, to ensure continuity while avoiding duplication from the previous efforts in improving the Landscape and street scape of these streets environment in Esfahan.
In previous studies mostly attention on development and conservation of the heritage zone and renewed the existing situation of landscapes. Rare studies proceed on the functional role of the area and its relationship with people life in this zone. Therefore, this study tries to find some new meanings in these different zones of Esfahan Province and pay more attention to environmental roles of urban elements and landscape items within the cities. Questionnaire
Often, the first step in landscape design is a questionnaire. Sometimes this questionnaire is written, sometimes it is a verbal question and answer conversation with your landscape designer. Such questionnaires will help you define your landscaping needs. After completing a landscaping questionnaire, you will have a better understanding of the purpose of your goal, as well as the greenery styles that will blend best with areas and activities.
The main part of this study is based on close-questionnaire. In the first stage pre-test or pre-questionnaire is down to find diverse chooses which people might imply. In the second stage, an interview will start by using close-questionnaire. In this part tried to propose some questions that they have the same meaning for the different type of people. It is caused to find exact answer and average finally. Observation
After distributing questionnaires and conducting interviews, the researcher will observe people’s behavior to find out the reliability of the collected data. Observation is used to transfer people’s perception of streets and their imaginative and emotional experience in the field study; at last, analyze and interpret the data that collected. It is a Non-participant and Personal observation that researcher observes actual behavior as it occurs and does not normally question or communicate with the people being observed. Interviews
Interviewing is a technique that is primarily used to gain an understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations for people’s attitudes or behavior. Interviews can be undertaken on a personal one-to-one basis or in a group. They can be conducted at work, at home, in the street or in a shopping center, or some other agreed location. Interviews may be structured with a specific set of questions or unstructured with just a general theme to start the interview. Interviews can be taped – or the researcher may take field notes as the interview progresses. Semi-structured interview
To reach to the parts which other methods cannot reach (Wellington et al., 2007) and also to get a deeper response of user’s perception, the interview is done. The interview is a pattern of verbal interaction (Shwandnt, 2007). It allows the researcher to investigate respondents thought, perceptions, feelings and perspectives and prompt things that cannot be observed.
For this study interview is defined as a semi-structural conversation used to complete a survey. It is used to measure how people imagine the streetscape in their minds and what is their perception of the street landscape as an urban element that they use every day with various purposes.
A Semi-structured interview is often most valuable between other forms of the interview and is more controlled by the researcher (Wellington et al., 2007). The Researcher had a list of questions which were asked from respondents. All respondents were interviewed and their answers were recorded. Few numbers of questions prepared as a guideline. By interview, researcher could find the difficulties participants had about this investigation. Finally, can realize different perceived of streetscape by different people and occupation and age.
Questions were categorized into two sections in regard to the objectives of the study. There were some general questions at the beginning of the interview to highlight what are people do in the street, about the street’s activities and people in streets and consists of different variables studying during the research; they are social interaction, commercial and economic, physical elements like furniture, water and trees and recreation and activities in streets. The second part of the semi-structured interview consists of research objectives and questions. The people needs in streets as users of this urban element.
After assembling survey questionnaire and interview, analysis began and data is analyzed by descriptive statistics to examine the different demands of people from street’s landscape and their exceptions of streetscape that they use frequently.

3.3.2 Respondents
In determining the number of respondents, the researcher based on different studies and chooses the average of their respondents as the total number of the respondents in this study (Table 1). The numbers of respondents choose to be 100 in the case study. Also according to the limited time of study and width of case study chooses this number of respondent for this investigation (Wellington, 2007).

Table 3.1: Different researches on street activities
Studies Peoples’ Responses Studies Peoples’ Responses
Baskaya et al., (2004) 98 Prestopnik and Ewoldsen (2000) 78
Klippel (2003) 40 Levinew et al., (1984) 47
Murakoshi and Kawai (2000) 100 Hund and Nazarczuk (2008) 72
Xia et al., (2007) 35 Watson (1999) 76
Passini et al., (1990) 50 Kurdi (2001) 60
Dalton (2003) 30 Zaman (2007) 95

3.3.3 Procedure
In order to understand the trends of variables, physical elements, social interaction, commercial and economic aspect, recreation and activity, and reach to the objectives, a qualitative method was undertaken. Randomizing procedures help control error from sources researcher might not anticipate (Zeisel, 2006).
At the beginning of the research, respondents were given an explanation of the study and the interview. They were asked to fill up the survey questionnaire and then asked to explain their opinion about the case study, why it is attractive for them to come much more time on it more than other streets, and what are their demands about streetscape and landscape features.
3.4 Data Analysis
To reach the aim of the study, data analyzed by the descriptive statistic; descriptive statistic analyze the data in the form of chart, table, averages and percentage of different perception by male and female about people demands of the streetscape. After data had been collected, they were analyzed with excel charts to make charts and average of investigation and show the result of the survey. Therefore, could discuss about these result and findings.

3.4.1 Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive statistics include the techniques that are used to summarize and describe the numerical data. It allows the researcher to make precise statements about data (Cozby, 2004). This method can either be graphical or involve computational analysis. For example, data can be described graphically using charts. Since the variables are qualitative variables bar graphs are the most appropriate to illustrate data.
In this study different variables, physical elements, social interaction, commercial and economic aspect, recreation and activity, are analyzed by descriptive statistics and are described graphically. These variables have an influence on people demands of the landscape in streets. They are categorized and coded to be able to analyze by descriptive statistics. Percentage and mode of the variables are used in analyzing data captured from the Semi-structured interview.
3.5 Analysis of semi-structured interview
Observations and visual surveys provided a snapshot of the activities, human behavior and attention on the case study. In this part will peruse the result of the survey questionnaire and interview refer to the variables and parameters of this study, physical elements, social interaction, commercial aspect, landscape elements and recreation and activities. This investigation analyses overview the study questions in two group: first, the people activities in streets and second is the expectancy and people needs in urban streets.

The first question asked about people activities in these selected streets:

Figure 3.11: Street Activities

As shown in this figure (3.12), the largest percentage of people activities in two heritage streets, Chahar Bagh Abbasi and Chahar Bagh Khajou, are Shopping, Promenading and Enjoy of atmosphere, in the other hand high percent of respondents like this street as a commercial and social point. The second high percentage relate to meeting friends and cycling. It presents that these streets for people are a social place and social activities are attract them more than others.
Additionally, as mentioned before, people use the street as a media to interact with each other. It is in street space, where people can see and are to be seen. The most important role of these streets is the social aspect. Also, these streets offer possibilities for people to do outdoor activities; sometimes exhibiting or holding a festival in these streets. Social activities, including necessary activities and urban recreation, occur along the street spaces and wide secure pathways and street free car.
In Boulevard Ayeneh Khaneh mostly comes for sitting and resting, this Boulevard is along the riverside and a line of the park. Here is a relaxing, jogging, resting, cycling and in the weekend used as a picnic place.
While Mir Fendereski Street has a new version of today streets, less attention on pedestrians and cycling and more focus on vehicle traffic. Nearby 80-90 percent of users look at this street as a workplace in this case studies. This Street in their imagination is a place to cash their incomes. They are looking at Mir Street just in point of the economic and commercial function.
The greatest percent of users likes streets in social interaction aspect; The other major role of streets in people mind is “street as a channel of movement and for passing”.
In this research 4 different type of streets investigated: Heritage, Tourist and commercial role in Chahar Bagh Abbasi Street; Promenading, resting and cycling in both Chahar Bagh Abbasi and Chahar Bagh Khajou because of the unique and noble atmosphere. Also Boulevard Ayeneh Khaneh because of its type and style is a recreation place beside of parks and river; the most important role in this street in one side is residential land use and the other side is parks and river and the street lines between these two roles is a channel of vehicle traffic and movement.

The second question is about people feeling in these case study:

Figure 3.12: People Feeling

As seen in this chart in 2 Chahar Bagh streets people have a good mood and feeling well, mostly they have relaxed sense because of good design and the safe area designed with thought, good facility and amenity in these streets.
Depend on the street role, Ayeneh Khaneh Boulevard has a recreation and social aspect. In Mir Street because of high vehicle traffic, pedestrians have more stress in movement. In all of these types of streets less percent of people has sadness because all of these types have high different activities and choice, in other hand street functions totally working well.

The third question asked people for their demands and expectancy in the streets:

Figure 3.13: People Demand

Because of the warm and dry weather in Esfahan all people feel lake of humidity and water element in Esfahan, especially after dried the Great River, Zayandeh Rood, which passed from east to west among the city. This river means life in this city and now without water element in city everywhere people like to meet water feature even along the streets.
The second landscape element that more needed in recreational places is more well designed Benches and Recycle bins.
Esfahan despite the dry weather has a good greenery because of passing the river among the street, both sides of the river is covered by parks and trees and shrubs therefore most of the people are satisfying by streets greenery. Also, streets have enough lighting at night and fewer people demand for more lightings.

The forth question is description the character of streets:

Figure 3.14: Street Character

The Chahar Bag Abbasi Avenue described as an Amusement, Busy, Social and commercial place while The Chahar Bagh Khajou called as relaxed, social, calm street and people introduce Ayeneh Khaneh Boulevard as a comfort social relaxing place and they mentioned about its busy as a positive point. At last, Mir Fendereski Street remembered as busy, crowded chaos traffic jam beside its commercial function.
The form and shape is a part of street characteristic that is important for urban users. The physical quality of a street could support the human activities. There is a relationship between human activities and the physical environment, form and shape.
All measures that slow traffic help pedestrians feel safer. This investigation has shown all of the urban users like wide streets because they feel safer in wide streets; in narrow streets they should be careful about the conflict point of pedestrians and vehicles (Llewelyn, 2000).
The other question over the streets is about unwanted features by users; for a better design in the future need to look for eventual problems that people suffer them.

Figure 3.15: Unwanted Features

In Mir Fendereski Street most users complain about unsuitable old covered pavement, crowded and traffic jam, noise, pollution and chaos because this street is not well designed for both aspect of vehicles and pedestrians in a good situation. But in other streets people are satisfied by pavements and pedestrian’s movement area because they have two separate safe area for both vehicles and pedestrians just some citizens complain about parallel vehicle traffic with a pathway along the park and they believed it could be unsafe for their children.

At last, people asked over the interesting landscape elements in streets; to have a better design in future asked respondent about the quality of amenity and facility in Streets.

Figure 3.16: Landscape Elements

In Chahar Bagh Abbasi and Chahar Bagh Khajou people are interested in water element and fountain, the good situation of pavements, enough lightings and glamorous shops showcases also they satisfy by shade and sunlight in deferent seasons and variety of plants.
While urban users in Ayeneh Khaneh Boulevard has attention on park atmospheres like plants, wide pathways, riverside and its sense for meditation and relaxing but most of the users ask for a better lighting for the park area.
Mir Street is enough green and shady or sunny for pedestrians but they didn’t expect for water element in this street because water feature never introduces here so they didn’t pay attention on it but if landscape architectures design water circulation in future people naturally will accept and enjoy of it.
One goal of this study is to find people expectation of their environment and streetscape. Then here asked them about what they like to use or seen in streets. Which elements in street are more attract them to be in one street more than others; the social interaction of streets, commercial aspect, physical element of the street like form, shape and furniture, or whatever.
The most important function of street is the social aspect of the streets. Therefore people mostly like the streets for connecting and meet each other; high percentage of respondents like streets for this purpose, meet or see or watching each other in streets; people like to see people on streets more than other options because presence of people means security for them; activities on streets are most important element for a successful street because a street is alive with its activities and interactions of people. But beside the social aspect users are interesting to well-designed landscape elements and furniture for their comfort and enjoyment.
Additionally, as mentioned before, people use streets as a media to interact with each other. It is in street space, where people can see and are to be seen. The most important role of these Streets is the social aspect.
The other major role of the street in people mind is “street as a channel of movement and for passing”. All of these streets have an important role as accessibility factor. The Chahar Bagh Abbasi Avenue is one of the main access and imaginary axis in Esfahan that connect and correlating the new development of the city to the historical part which is Naghshe Jahan Square. This Street is a connection corridor for people in this area with conservation values that make it more interesting for tourist and locals.

3.6 Summary
Streets comprise more than 80% of public space in cities, but they often fail to provide their surrounding communities with a space where people can safely walk, bicycle, drive, take transit, and socialize.
Cities are leading the movement to redesign and reinvest in our streets as cherished public spaces for people, as well as critical arteries for traffic. A blueprint for designing 21st century streets, the Guide unveils the toolbox and the tactics cities use to make streets safer, more livable, and more economically vibrant.
The Guide outlines both a clear vision for complete streets and a basic road map for how to bring them to fruition.
For the purpose of clear communication, streets are shown as orthogonally aligned, with the understanding that adjustments should be made to adapt to specific local conditions. Designing for People will help provide alternative alignments and configurations for each typology and can clarify recommended dimensions.
Chahar Bagh Abbasi Avenue is always as a busy commercial main street offering a large variety of retail and service facilities for the local residents. As it was in the past, This Street is still the main shopping street with plenty to offer although the nature of trades and services has changed accordingly with time and demand.
Chaharbagh Khajou Street as a historic old street with mixed land use of residential and commercial is another historical street in Esfahan. To compare with the Chahar Bagh Abbasi Avenue the wide is smaller scale but with the similar style and different activities.
Aineh Khaneh Boulevard has been chosen as a residential and recreational boulevard because of its location by the riverside and Great Park.
In these three streets due to their functions and mixed use activities and special streetscape people have a better experience and feeling rather than Mir Fendereski Street that just busy by a huge amount of vehicles passengers. Although in three other case study locations because of renewed and redesigned well thinking urban space, can find the more greenery old trees more resting area and recreational form of the streets people have relaxing mood and more happiness.
Themes from this interview:
1. People need Safe and freely movement.
2. Feelings more relax in green and well planted streets.
3. Older persons need to feel calmness and experience joy in the Old Street that they have memories from young ages like Chahar Bagh Khajou Street and Chahar Bagh Abbasi Avenue.
4. Naturally the street activities and landscape effect on urban users in positive and negative forms.
For the six key sites in the study areas, the major urban design considerations were highlighted as follows:
(a) Improving accessibility
(b) Harmonizing development and iconic architecture
(c) Improving pedestrian realm for development sites
(d) A mix of uses to provide vibrancy
(e) More open space and greening opportunities
(f) More attention to landscape, streetscape and furniture



4.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the main findings of the study about “The People Demands of Landscape Architecture as a Part of Urban Design in Esfahan Streets” and find which aspect of streetscape is more important for users. Additionally, in second section of this chapter present the general conclusion for overall research. The following section described the findings of respondent which is based on the variables of this investigation that they are physical elements such as form and shape of street, furniture and landscape elements, street as a channel of movement, social interaction within the street, commercial and economic aspect of street, recreation and activities in street. Finally, at last section presents suggestions and recommendation for further research are outlined.
4.2 Discussion
This section discusses the main findings of the study around variables, physical and landscape elements, social interaction, commercial and economic aspect, recreation and activities. There are two main findings identified in the analysis. The first is about people’s activities on street, which was including social activities and interactions in street, commercial and economic activities and so on. The second finding is about people’s expectation and anticipation of streetscapes and landscape elements that they need.
Cities usually contain a set of various activities, but some of them undertake a specific role and acquire a unique identity. A city can take religious, governmental, political, cultural, commercial or other roles, and reveal its predominant identity based on time, place, and presence of humans that define the city’s function. Among these, the most important element of human relationship with his surrounding environment is present in an environment so that memories are recorded in their mind. In addition, Schulz says in this regard, “A necessary condition for the application of place in the true sense of the word is memory. A human, after reaching a place, experiences its environmental qualities, and the unification and union of that place – identity – are revealed to him.
Accordingly, the concept of the freedom-oriented urban space is a concept focused on the “design for all”. In other words, a freedom-oriented urban space is a physical manifestation of the public
Characteristics of freedom in urban spaces. Therefore, a freedom-oriented urban space can be defined as “A space, which provides the possibility of use, free movement, access to the space for everyone and environmental comfort and equitable allocation of municipal facilities for them; encourages citizens to participate in the creation and interactive use of the space; and controls and foresees the establishment of justice in the form of a particular discipline with consistent management.”(Behzadfar, Kordestani, 2009)
Quality of life and quality of environment have always been among the main concerns of scientists in the field of urban development. In the transition from special conditions influenced by the industrial revolution, world wars, economic recessions, etc, which have led to accepting the compulsiveness of social issues and their impact on the place and environment, to a fundamental turn towards the interaction between humans and environment, it can be seen that most recent theorists have tried to consider this mutual effect. Basis on it, they have provided some assumptions in order to improve the lives of human beings. From among these theorists, we can refer to some scholars such as “Jane Jacobs”, “Donald Appleyard”, “Francis Tibbalds”, “Jan Gehl”, etc., who have given particular attention to social and functional aspects of public spaces in order to improve the quality of life and environment; and one of the categories regarded by them has been increasing the walkability in the cities. The importance of human presence in the urban space is sometimes imagined to the extent that it has been considered the most important sign of the quality of civilization (Tibbalds, 2004, quoted from Buchanan, 1963).
A walkway is something more than a series of shops. These places pave the way for cultural, recreational, leisure, and rambling issues, civic life, and exchange of views, ideas, and opinions in a society (Tibbalds, 2004), pedestrian spaces are areas for the occurrence of social and political events, creation of memories, and expression of collective feelings (Fakoohi, 2006). Walkways are pathways with the highest level of social role, where pedestrians are in full control, and motor vehicles are only used to serve ongoing life in the streets. Walkways are tools for the development of collective activities (Pakzad, 2009). In this regard, the potential of a place to be used by pedestrians is the utility of the built environment for the presence of people, life, shopping, meeting, pastimes and enjoying them in a zone (Nosal, 2009). A pedestrian zone is a place, whose inhabitants, whatever their age and ability, can feel security and comfort, appropriateness and attractiveness in a walk, not only during leisure, but also while using the equipment and when commuting (The American Planning Association (APA), 2008). From among scientists, having influence on walkways, Jacobs while criticizing the modernist thinking about streets, has stressed the importance of walkways. In addition, in his book “Townscape”, while confirming Jacobs, and contrary to modernist architects, “Gordon Cullen” considers an urban environment to be desirable if the presence of humans on foot is possible in the cities and the cities are at human scale (Cullen, 2003).

4.2.1 Different aspect of Case Study and their Activities
Referring to the analysis in chapter 3, streets as an urban element has different meaning for different type and age of people; people has different expectance and different imagination of their environment; for example old people do not like so much busy streets and crowded streets by people and vehicles, they prefer to be in a calm street with facilities to resting. But teenagers mostly like active streets full of various shops and mixed use and more colorful and stylish landscape elements. As they like these case study of this investigation because of their various activities and various functions and elements related to their functions.

4.2.2 The Function and Landscape Elements of Case Study
These four Streets have indeed a special urban space with different functions and aspect of urban activities to the people. They represents a several functions. The multi-functional case study can be established various aspects including economic, social, cultural, historical and imaginary for all type of urban users. These aspects are discussed as follows: Case Study as an Urban Imaginary Axis
Chahar Bagh Abbasi historic Avenue, can see it is one of the main access and imaginary axis in the city center of Old Esfahan that connect and correlating the new development of the city to the historical part which is Safavi Square, Nagh-e-Jahan. This Street is a connection corridor for people in this area with conservation values that make it more interesting for tourist and locals. This corridor uses by pedestrian and cyclist for rich to the heritage part of the city.
Chahar Bagh Khajou historic street also is a main access in the old part of the city that also connect old and new part of city. The old water resource in this street is a unique element in this area. The special design of this street make it suitable and safe movement space for both pedestrian, cycling and vehicle.
Ayeneh Khaneh Boulevarde also is unique in its kind, River-side Street. This space provide a promenade area for picnic, cycling, jogging, and walking beside vehicle movement in a residential street.
Mir Fenderesky Street with the most role of commercial beside the residential function is a crowded street that mostly use as a channel of movement and passing corridor as connection aim. Physical Features of Case Study
Physical features and appearance of case study can be seen in their plants, furniture, and water element, structure of the street, streetscape and other aesthetic qualities. People perceive these physical features as memorable elements. Landmarks, which are dominated by historical buildings, are special features observed in historic streets, Chahar Bagh Abbasi and Chahar Bagh Khajou. This shows the significance of physical appearance of street for the people. Historical features in these Streets demonstrated the character of the street through their richness of architectural styles and entities.
Beside historic signs these two streets have special landscape modeling that separate them from other streets, four lines of high and old trees that the space between them has covered by same shrubs, three lines of pathways, two lines both side of streets and one is in the middle, which covered by good quality stones and bricks. So related to the planting structure these streets have a suitable sun and shade in all of seasons.
In other hand, users are satisfied by the lights and benches and other urban elements features and the only request is over the water circulation as a landscape element; but it is difficult to manage and answer to this urban users demand because of the water shortage crisis. Esfahan needs to rethink about the water shortage and air pollution crisis. Also in Ayeneh Khaneh Boulevard people complain fore dried river. In Mir Street because of lake of well design people needs more space for pedestrian and cyclist activities beside the vehicle movement rather than landscape elements.
4.3 Conclusion
The findings of this study clearly indicate that a physically well-designed street for people, with generous sidewalks, ample seating and other street furniture, tree cover and other landscape elements becomes much more useful and meaningful for people when there are community gathering places and a variety of activity-supporting stores and other land uses at the street.
People need to trust on street beyond of its design. The other people’s reaction and behavior certainly effect on the other people. People often copy each other’s behavior in urban spaces especially in streets. They look at the other and get a new pattern of behaves. In these case study unconscious people do same behavior. In Chahar Bagh Streets depend on old design and deep cultural function the people behave like old decades when the car’s traffic was very limited, they use these old street with peace of mind.
It means that people couldn’t adapt with vehicle traffic over the century and still they want to see streets more functional for pedestrians. They prefer to see vehicles in limited part of the city and have more space to have fun and enjoy in streets with calmness.
However, this study does suggest that the four aspects; physical elements, social and commercial aspects and activities that emerged from the findings are critical to the understanding of streets and to achieving a quality of public space that is helpful to stationary, lingering, and social activities.
There is magic to great streets. We are attracted to the best of them not because we have to go there but because we want to be there. The best are as joyful as they are utilitarian. They are entertaining and they are open to all. They are symbols of a community and of its histories; they represent a public memory.
In any development the design of streets should start by asking “what will happen on this street?” The street should be designed to suit the activities that we would like to see carried out on it. For example, if the street is lined with shops it should be designed to enable people to get to the shops, cross the road, have a chat and linger in front of shop windows.
Getting the balance right at the right place is critical because streets are the most important part of the public realm, and thus are fundamental to how we live together in towns and cities. They influence our lives at the functional level but also in how we relate to each other and to public authorities. “More and more people want a return to the traditional main street, particularly as we become more mobile, more global, and more computerized, but human beings still need a sense of belonging, a sense of community.” says Philip Enquist, a partner at Skidmore.
According to Bentley (1985), mixed-use neighborhoods are a desirable pattern of physical development in urban regions. By mixing various land uses, can achieve a more vital, vibrant, attractive, safe, viable, and sustainable pattern of urban lifestyle. Previous studies have shown that one of the most important characteristics that people look for in streets is the liveliness and diversity of activities and enjoy of various landscape elements there.
The urban users would attending on landscape when their safety has provided; in Mir Street people have less attention on kinds of plants and furniture because they are frequently thinking about pedestrian and vehicle conflict and have stress for safe movement; then pedestrians in a well-designed space can enjoy of landscape and streetscape elements.
In other three streets because of suitable amenities and facilities for pedestrian activities people has more attention on surrounding and landscape of streets. Then they has a better connection with streetscape.
According to Jane Jacobs, the major part of the concept of the “street life” content lies on its sidewalks. To her, these crowded and vibrant sidewalks give meaning to the city center by providing an arena of mutual social relations. (Choay, 1996). There is no doubt that the place of pedestrian and bicycle traffic grew faint in today’s urban planning, which is due to multiple factors such as insufficient familiarity with alternatives to base car transportation, attachment to rigid rules and regulations, and incorrect imaginations of the planning and design system about the type and quality of traffic. In this regard, it is important to pay attention to a fundamental difference between the conditions of modern cities and the cities of the past. Walking is considered the first evolved method of movement for every healthy individual (modal, 2007). Walkways are places for the presence of all citizens and their participation in their collective life. These spaces act at the scale of the entire city and embrace different groups of citizens, and in addition to their communication and accessibility role, provide safe and comfortable places for social contact, rambling, watching, and so on. In other words, walkways in urban spaces are places for strengthening communications, activating non-visual senses, perception of environment through the senses, and civic revitalization of urban centers (Malek, 2006).
People need spaces in which they walk, run, ride a bicycle, alone or with their family play and have fun, have leisure time and take a picnic and/or sit somewhere to study and relax (Parkinson, 2006:12).Therefore, what is considered here, as a freedom-oriented urban space, is one, which possesses a set of people-oriented environmental qualities, providing an appropriate substrate to establish a social life in a civil society. In other words, the mission of designing freedom-oriented urban spaces is to protect the rights of users, and to provide access, freedom of action, and temporary ownership for all the groups (Ghorbanian, 2008).

The most important qualities of urban landscape in these four axes have been extracted as follows:
1- Being located in the downtown area, being adjacent to the Safavid palaces, being part of the main north-south axis, and turning the axis into a tourism hub and shopping center at downtown, in the dignity of the axis and tourists
2- The presence of historical elements and structure in the heritage and historic Chahar Bagh Streets to define and strengthen it.
3- The presence of old tall trees and green space in these two streets creating memories for older people.
4- Constructing and renewing body of these old streets make it alive again with nowadays demands.
5- Creating stations for bicycles in three Chahar Bagh Abbasi, Chahar Bagh Khajou and Ayeneh Khaneh Boulevard for people’s convenience
4.4 Recommendation
If designers provide more facilities about furniture could make more pleasant place for people and certainly will have more stationary and sustainability for this street. In this study, street means a social, enjoyable and relaxing from the day stress for people rather than other aspect. Because, the great number of people likes these Streets for shopping, walking, watching, enjoying of surrounding and entertaining.
To strengthen the liveliness of these Streets, a safer pedestrian network should be created in order to offer people good walking routes. When the possibilities for walking are good and the street environment is lively, people will make use of the street to a much larger extent. An improvement of sidewalks with good quality pedestrian routes and livable landscape can increase the number of pedestrians and create better chances of community in the streets.
Better amenities and street furniture should be continuously induced and regenerated. There is an urgent need to provide street spaces with contemporary amenities such as more shade and seats.
It is also important to conserve physical features, especially building façade and arcades, which can contribute in enhancing the identity of place.
Planning and designing a walkway will be successful when, in addition to physical factors, the social and cultural conditions and even psychological and behavioral patterns of citizens are taken into consideration.
The goal of this study is to discover the most important people-friendliness qualities in the urban landscape of the four streets in Isfahan.
Due to the criteria associated with the urban landscape of walkways in these case study determined objectives and suggestions as follow:
– for increasing vitality and diversity in streets and paying attention to the social and functional aspects of streets and sidewalks with attend on Jane Jacobs theory, suggest to diversity of activities, vitality sidewalks, green space, urban furniture, sense of place, security and social interaction.
– For high sense of security should make access to recreational facilities and providing pedestrians with comfort also restricting the movement of vehicles.
– For users satisfaction in these streets should attention on their demands about cleanliness, greenness, lighting, attractiveness, safety and access to transport stations.
– For preservation of individual and public identity and values should more attention on meaning (sense), hearing the voice of the past in the sense of readability of cultural heritage, sensory richness, the color of belonging, historic preservation and urban restoration, paying attention of the architectural values of the environment, use of traditional urban experience in new constructions, beauty and harmony.
– For protect individual rights address the issue designing for pedestrians (walkability) and paying attention to the human scale in the projects (human scale).


Appleyard, D. (1981). Livable streets. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.
Baxter A. (2002). Paving the way, how we achieve clean, safe and attractive streets. London, Thomas Telford Publishing.
Bell, J. (1993). How to Complete your Research Project Successfully: a guide for first-time researchers. Indian, Publisher New Delhi.
Bentley, I., et al., (1985). Responsive environments: A manual for designers. London: Architectural Press.
Bromley, Ray (editor), (1979). The Urban Informal Sector: Critical Perspective on Employment and Housing Policies, Pergamon Press Ltd., England.
Brower, S. (1988). Design in familiar places: What makes home environments look good. In Lively Streets. V. Mehta. Journal of Planning Education and Research Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning, University of South Florida.
Bulut, Y., Atabeyog, I., (2005). Fountains as urban furniture in historical urban structure and usage culture: Erzurum city case. Landscape Architecture Department, Agricultural Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey.
Castells, Manuel, (1989). The Informational City: Information Technology, Economic, Restructuring and the Urban-Regional Process, Basil Blachwell, Oxford.
Chin Lin, C. (2008). Melacca: Thrills and treasure of historical landmarks. Malaysia: Marshall Cavendish Editions.
Cooper-Marcus, C. (1995). Gardens in healthcare facilities: uses, therapeutic benefits, and design recommendations. Martinez, CA : Centre for Health Design.
Cozby, P.C., (2004). Methods in Behavioral research. New York, Mc Grow-Hill.
Czaenowsky, Thomas V. (1986). The Streets as Communications Artifact. In Stanford Anderson ed. On Streets, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London: The MIT press.
Eichner and Tobey, (1987). In moudon, A.V (ed). Public Streets for Public Use, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc., New York.
Eliss, W.C., (1986). On streets. The spatial structure of streets, in Stanford Anderson ed. Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, The MIT Press.
Fayson, A., (1976). Change The Street. Oxford, University Press.
Francaviglia, R. V., (1996). Main Street revisited. In Does “Main Street” Promote Sense of Community? ed. R. Pendola, S. Gen. Sage Publications.
Gehl J., (1987). Life between buildings. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Girouard, M., (1985). Cities and people: A social and architectural history. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.
Hass-Klau, C.et al., (1990). Pedestrian and City Traffic. Belhaven Press, London.
Hester, R., (1984). Planning neighborhood space with people. 2nd ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Idid, S.Z.A., Sholihah, Arif Budi, et al., (2004). Informal Street Activities: A Case for Sustainable Urban Cultural Identity of South East Asian Cities- Malioboro Street, Yogyakarta, Indonesia and Jonker Street, Melaka, Malaysia, Proceedings of the International Seminar Senvar IV, Universiti Teknology Malaysia, December 2004
Idid, S.Z.A., (2008). Urban identity crisis: architectural styles vs informal human activities : a case for Malaysian towns and cities, University Technology Malaysia.
Jackson, Sh., (2006). Research methods and statistics: a critical thinking approach. Belmont, CA : Thomson/Wadsworth.
Jacobs, Allen B (1993). Great streets, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Jacobs, Jane (1961). The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Vintage books, New York.
Korff, Rudger, and Evers, Hans-Dieter (2000). Southeast Asian Urbanism: The Meaning and Power of Social Space, Lit Verlag, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore.
Kutcher, Arthur, (1978). Looking at London: Illustrated Walks through a Changing City, Thames and Hudson, London, England.
Llewelyn D., (2000). Urban design compendium. London: English Partnerships/Housing Corporation.
Lockwood, C., (1997). Putting the urb in the suburbs. In Does “Main Street” Promote Sense of Community? ed. R. Pendola, S. Gen. Sage Publications.
Lofland, L., (1998). The public realm: Exploring the city’s quintessential social territory. In Lively Streets. V. Mehta. Journal of Planning Education and Research Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning, University of South Florida.
Lynch K., (1960). Image of city .Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Mehta, V., (2007). Lively Streets. Journal of Planning Education and Research Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning, University of South Florida.
Mooney, G., (1988). Image of The Street.
Moudon, A.V., (1987). Public streets for public use. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.
Moughtin, Cliff, (1992). Urban Design: Street and Square, Butterworth Architecture, Great Britain.
Pena, Sergio, (1999). Informal Markets: Street Vendors in Mexico city, Habitat International, Vol.23, No.3, pp.362-372.
Pendola, R., Gen, S., (2007). Does “Main Street” Promote Sense of Community? A Comparison of San Francisco Neighborhoods. Sage Publications.
Preiser, W.F.E., (1971). Analysis of pedestrian velocity and stationary behaviour in a shopping mall . New Mexico : University of Mexico. School of Architecture and Planning. Institute of Environmental Education.
Rapoport, A., (1987). Pedestrian Street Use: Culture and Perception. In Moudon, A.V, Public Streets for Public Use, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc., New York.
Rapoport, A., (1990). History and Precedent in Environment Design. Plenum Press, New York
Relphs, E., (1972). Place and Placelessness, Pion Limited, London.
Robertson, K. A., (1999). Can small-city downtowns remain viable?. In Does “Main Street” Promote Sense of Community? ed. R. Pendola, S. Gen. Sage Publications.
Rudofsky, Bernard, (1969). Street for People: A Primer for Americans, Doubleday, New York.
Rykwert, J., (1986). The street: The use of Its History. In Stanford Anderson ed. On Streets, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London: The MIT Press.
Schwandt, T.A., (2007). The SAGE Dictionary of Qualitative Inquiry, (3rd ed.) California: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Sholihah, A., (2005). The role of informal street activities in the context of conserving urban cultural entity. Faculty of build environment, University Technology of Malaysia.
Sword, L., (2008). The path to health and happiness. In Does “Main Street” Promote Sense of Community? ed. R. Pendola, S. Gen. Sage Publications.
Timothy, Dallen J. and G. Wall, (1997). Selling to Tourists: Indonesian Street Vendors, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 322-340.
Trancik, R., (1986). Finding Lost Space: Theories of Urban Design. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Thaiutsa, B., Puangchita, L., Kjelgrenb, R., Arunpraparuta, W., 2008. Urban green space, street tree and heritage large tree assessment in Bangkok, Thailand. Faculty of Forestry.
Wellington J.J., (2007). Research methods for the social sciences. London, Continuum International Publishing.
Whyte, W.H., (1989). The social life of small urban spaces. Washington, DC, Conservation Foundation.
Zeisel, J., (2006). Inquiry by Design: Environment Behavior Neuroscience in Architecture, Interior, Landscape and Planning. New York: W.W. Norton ; Company.
ZMD, (2003). The study on the improvement and conservation of historical urban environment in the historical ciry of Melaka. Japan International Coopretation Agency (JICA), Majlis Perbandaran Malacca Bandarya Bersejarah (MPMBB).
Appendix A
“Street Scape & Landscape Questionnaire”
Name of Street:
This questionnaire evaluates Street Scape and Landscape features in this street.
1) Do you know what is the Urban Landscape and what the Landscape Architecture do?
2) What is the main role of this street for you?
3) What is the most interesting element in streets for you?
4) The design of urban furniture is important for you? Do you attention on style, color, position or other feature of urban furniture?
5) Desired Outdoor Activities: (please put a cross and specify activities you want to participate within this Street) :
– Shopping
– Promenading
– Enjoying of atmosphere
– Watching people
– Sitting ; resting
– Meeting Friends
– Working
– Passing to receive your destination
– Cycling
– Other; Please explain.
6) How do you feel when you are in This Street (Which strong sense do you have here)?
– Remember good experience
– Good Mood ; feeling well
– Bad feeling and sad
– Fear at late night
– Worry ; Anxious
– Other Senses; Please explain:
7) Are there specific features that you need or would like to include in this Street?
– More Lights
– Flower Boxes and more Shrubs and Trees (More Greenery)
– More Shade
– More Sunlight
– Benches
– Recycle bin
– Another Paving Cover for Pedestrian Walkway (Stone, Concrete, Brick, etc.)
– Colorful Paintings and Billboards
– Architectural Lights on Buildings
– Water feature ; circulation
– Cycling safe road
8) How would you describe the character of this street?
– Amusement
– Busy
– Chaos
– No enough place for pedestrian activities
– Commercial
– Social
– Crowded ; confusing
– Calm
– Comfort
– Suitable for walking and relaxing
9) Are there existing features that you would like to remove?
– Noise
– Chaos
– Pollution
-Vehicle’s crowded
– People’s crowded
– Unsuitable pathway
– Other; Please explain
10) Which landscaping element is interesting to you in this street?
– Lighting (on street lights, buildings light, pathway lights, shops, etc.)
– Greenery (flower boxes, shrubs, trees, grass, etc.)
– Water elements (water circulation, fountains, building entrance water element, etc.)
– Colorful billboards, paintings, colorful shop windows, etc.)
– Pavement Cover
– Street facilities (Benches, Bins, information boxes, type and form of lights and lamps and benches, etc.)
– Shade or sunlight of pathways
– Type of plants
– Other, Please explain.

Thank you for your time in completing this questionnaire