The respiratory system within the human body is a very important system that enables us to take in oxygen, without oxygen ATP is harder to produce. Breathing is an act which involves inhaling and exhaling air in the body, the absorption of oxygen from the air helps to produce energy, the discharge of carbon dioxide released as a by-product. The respiratory system is in close conjunction with that of the circulation system, its main purpose is to supply each body cell with the correct essentials such as oxygen and eliminate potentially harmful carbon dioxide from the body. The function of the mouth and nose is to ensure air from outside of the body passes through a system of tubes of a small size so that it eventually reaches the lungs situated on either side of the heart within the chest cavity. The respiratory system is separated into two parts upper and lower respiratory tracks (Kindersley, 2007).
The first part of the respiratory system is the upper track which is the main entry point the nose which has two cavities, separated from each other between a wall of cartilages called the septum and an external opening which are known as nares or nostrils these identify the nose. The nose is an olfactory organ that consists of nasal skeleton that houses the nasal cavity, it has five functions, which are responsible for warming, humidifying, smelling, draining and clears paranasal sinuses and lacrimal ducts, removing pathogens. Air enters the body through the nose, as it passes over the specialised cells of the olfactory system, the brain recognises and identifies smells (MyVMC, 2018).The cilia’s clean the air of foreign particles, as air travels through the nasal passage it is warmed and humidified before it enters the lungs, it possesses its shape due to evolutionary factor in a theory that that climate has a profound influence on the way the human nose is shaped in relation to this it acts as a protector. The nose also has several protective structures within it such as, a lined sticky mucus covered membrane that traps dust particles and germs (Popsci.com,2018). Nasal hair (cilia) are situated inside the entrance of the nostrils and acts as a filtering system allowing the airways to stay clear of mucus and dirt like follicles. Air that travels through the nose is warmed, moisten/humidified for it be able to travel through the bloodstream as dry air can cause complication. The mouth and the beginning of the trachea are sections that also enable air to travel in and out. It is then followed by the lower track which includes sections such as the pharynx a 12- 14cm area that is located amongst the epiglottis a flap like cartilage that acts as a protector to prevent food or similar objects from entering the trachea (Anon,2018). The larynx is a short like cartilaginous tube which joins the pharynx with the trachea, together with the vocal cords within the larynx it plays a vital role in speech production. The Trachea then splits into two airways called primary right and left bronchi. Each bronchus divides continuously into the secondary and tertiary bronchi, which eventually end up in tiny bronchioles which house the first site of gas exchange.
The branching is referred to as the bronchial tree. Lungs are also parts of the lower respiratory system whereby some of the main performance of breathing take place. However, the role of the trachea which is approximately 4in (11cm) long is held open by a combined of 16-20 C shaped cartilages, this enables the trachea to still possess movement and to maintain a specific shape to prevent it from bending, allowing it to open and close when possible. The Oesophagus runs directly behind the trachea, this allows food to pass aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach. The pharynx is known as a short-funnelled shape tube that can extend a pathway down the neck, the first location of the pharynx enables air to channel down it whereas, the lower end food and liquids have an entrance (TeachMeAnatomy,2018).
The actions of breathing, inhaling/exhaling are due to the changes of pressure within the chest cavity (Thorax). The action of this behaviour can also be known as external respiration which are created by the muscle of the chest and the diaphragm changing the size of the chest cavity (and air pressure). When exhaling the intercostal muscle between the ribs and a diagram contrast and expand to the chest cavity, the diagram flattens and moves downwards allowing the intercostal muscles to move the rib cages upwards and outwards. The increase in size will decrease the internal air pressure so air that is outside moves fast into the lungs which equalises the pressure. Once the diagram is exhaled and the intercostal muscles have relaxed and stabilised to their normal resting position. This enable the reduction in size to the thoracic cavity, thereby increasing the pressure and forcing air out of the lungs. Bodily respiration is taking in vital oxygen from the air and expelling waste carbon dioxide to the air. Lungs fill most of the chest cavity and are identified as two sponge like functions, together they create one of the biggest organs within the body (Kindersley, 2007).
Gas exchange occurs within the lungs, the body is unable to store oxygen and needs continuing supplies to support the removal of the constant produce of Carbon Dioxide. Gas exchange encourage the swap of oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in the lungs and tissues. The main purpose for the respiratory system is to enable the exchange of two gasses (Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide). The process of the exchange takes place in the millions of tiny alveoli within the lungs and the envelope of the capillaries. The oxygen that is inhaled then travels from the Alveoli to the blood inside the capillaries, then the carbon dioxide travels from the blood into the capillaries to the air in the Alveoli (MSD Manual Consumer Version, 2018). Three stages are essential for the transfer of oxygen from the outside air to the blood flowing through the lungs: ventilation, diffusion, and perfusion. Ventilation is the process by which air moves in and out of the lungs. Diffusion is the spontaneous movement of gases, without the use of any energy or effort by the body, between the gas in the alveoli and the blood in the capillaries in the lungs. Perfusion is the process by which the cardiovascular system pumps blood throughout the lungs. The body’s circulation is an essential link between the atmosphere, which contains oxygen, and the cells of the body, which consume oxygen, erythrocytes are red blood cells that travel in the blood (YouTube, 2018). Their characteristics of being red, round, and rubber like give them the ability to complete their specific functions. They carry oxygen from the lungs to the body, and bring carbon dioxide back to the lungs to be expelled (Study.com, 2018) for instance, the delivery of oxygen to the muscle cells throughout the body depends not only on the lungs but also on the ability of the blood to carry oxygen and on the ability of the circulation to transport blood to muscle.
The most important muscle in the human body is the heart, which is part of the cardiovascular system that regulate the body without this you would not be alive. The heart is asymmetrical , with the left side being larger than the right side, correlating with the different sizes of the pulmonary and systemic circuits. It is a powerful organ approximately the size of a clenched fist, it pumps 5 litres of blood throughout your body 70 times a minute. The heart never stops working from the time it starts beating in the embryo until the moment you die. It doesn’t get a second to rest, it beats continually every 0.8 seconds of your life. it is located between the left centre of the lungs. The pointed ends are known as (Apex) it is responsible for circulating blood throughout the body (Ivyroses.com, 2018). It pumps blood filled with oxygen and nutrients through the blood vessels to the body tissues. The heart is divided into separate sections four chambers two upper chambers, the Atria which receives and collects blood. The two lower chambers, ventricles, pump blood to other parts of the body. The right atrium receives blood from the body, which is low in oxygen. The right ventricle pumps the blood from the right atrium into the lungs to provide it with oxygen and remove carbon dioxide. The left ventricle pumps the blood from the atrium into the body, supplying all the organs with oxygen-rich blood. There are four valves situated in the heart aortic, pulmonary, mitral and tricuspid which are designed to allow the forward flow of blood and prevent the backward flow. The role of blood vessels is to ensure blood travels to the lungs, where oxygen enters the bloodstream, and then to the body. The eight-tenths of a second that a heart beats are called the cardiac cycle. During that 0.8-second period, your heart forces blood into your blood vessels (for 0.4 seconds) and then takes a quick rest (for just 0.4 seconds). Here’s what happens in those 0.8 seconds: Contraction of the left and right atria: This contraction squeezes blood down into the ventricles. Contraction of the left and right ventricles: This contraction forces blood into the blood vessels that leave the heart. Resting of the atria and ventricles: The relaxed atria allow the blood within them to drain into the ventricles
(Stanfordchildrens.org, 2018). The heart pumps oxygenated blood out of the left ventricle and into the aorta to begin systemic circulation. After the blood has supplied cells throughout the body with oxygen and nutrients, it returns deoxygenated blood to the right atrium of the heart. The deoxygenated blood travels down from the right atrium to the right ventricle. The heart then pumps it out of the right ventricle and into the pulmonary arteries to begin pulmonary circulation. The blood moves to the lungs, exchanges carbon dioxide for oxygen, and returns to the left atrium. The oxygenated blood travels from the left atrium to the left ventricle below, to begin systemic circulation again (Argosy Publishing, 2018).
Name Breathing and
(BR) Pulse rate at rest
(PR) BR & PR
(PR) 1 Min
(BR) 1 Min
Nimco 15 63 20 34 61 81
Stacey 16 60 21 17 67 88
Sophie 16 57 22 42 69 90
Marcel 17 68 19 37 70 87
Beth 18 53 7 33 42 120
Anyah 18 63 9 29 34 98
Rachael 18 66 7 27 42 103
Chantelle 9 77 9 30 77 112
Halima 12 69 9 25 60 101
Observational changes that occurred with breathing and circulation during excercise
The Feedback loop is defined as a system used to control the level of a variable in which there is an identifiable receptor (sensor), control centre (integrator or comparator), effectors, and methods of communication which can be located in the medulla the lower part of the brain. Variables are parameters that are monitored and controlled or affected by the feedback system. Receptors (sensors) detect changes in the variable. Control centres (integrators) compare the variable in relation to a set point and signal the effectors to generate a response. Control centres sometimes consider information other than just the level of the variable in their decision-making, such as time of day, age, and external conditions. Effectors execute the necessary changes to adjust the variable. Methods of communication among the components of a feedback loop are necessary in order for it to function. This often occurs through nerves or hormones, but in some cases receptors and control centres are the same structures, so that there is no need for these signal modes in that part of the loop (LivingStrong.com, 2018).
During exercise my muscle cells used oxygen to convert the energy stored in glucose into the energy stored in ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which was then used to drive muscle contractions. When exercising, my muscles needed more oxygen. Therefore, to maintain an adequate oxygen level in all of the tissues in my body, I had to breathe heavier and at a higher rate. These are the symptoms that I experienced whilst completing the exercise class. This allowed me to take in more oxygen. My heart also pumped faster and harder, allowing the delivery of more oxygen-rich blood to each muscle and other organs that required more oxygen and ATP (Biology Q&As, 2018). As your muscles carry out cellular respiration to release the energy from glucose, they produce carbon dioxide and water as waste products. These wastes must be eliminated to help your body maintain its fluid and pH balance. Your increased breathing and heart rates also help eliminate a great deal of carbon dioxide and some of the excess water. Your muscles use the energy stored in ATP molecules to generate the force they need to contract. A byproduct of releasing that energy is heat, so exercising increases your body temperature. (Courses.lumenlearning.com, 2018). The negative feedback helps to maintain homeostatic set points not just blood pressure and the rate of the heart. To maintain a normal pH it must be between 7.35 – 7.45 to enable a physiological process. If pH levels become greater than this 7.8 of less than 6.8 death can occurs as we exercise our carbon dioxide levels increases identifying a change in our blood stream encouraged by harmful acids. When we exercise, our bodies experience an increase in production of CO2 and H+ which causes us to breathe faster and deeper to activate the blood buffer in our system by supplying sufficient O2 required for the increase in CO2 and H+ (Grade 12U Chemistry-Systems and Equilibrium, 2018).