This work reports modelling of the solidification and spreading during impact of hollow liquid droplet onto a solid flat surface

This work reports modelling of the solidification and spreading during impact of hollow liquid droplet onto a solid flat surface. The detailed studies of effect of surface roughness on spreading, solidification and formation of splat is doneNumerical simulation of liquid metal droplets impacting on cold substrate is a challenging proposition. The complexities include the free surface deformation, both mode of heat transfer convective and diffusive and presence of solid/liquid phase-change boundary in solidification. Various methods are employed to track the free surface evolution such as volume tracking methods, front tracking methods, level set methods, phase-field formulations, continuum advection schemes, boundary integral methods and moving mesh methods. Due to the rapid deformation of the droplet during the impact process, both convective and diffusive energy transfers are important and due to this it is included in the energy equation. The modeling of a phase change shares many of the difficulties of the free surface. It also requires the accounting of the latent heat of fusion in the energy equation.