TITLE

TITLE: CHARACTER PLAYED BY BLOOD GROUP ON HEIGHT OF HUMANS

Muhammad Imran Qadir, Mashal Zeest*
Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology; Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
*Correspondence: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
Objective of the present study was to correlate blood grouping with height. Total 157 subjects participated in the present study. These subjects were students in Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan; Pakistan. Blood group types are being characterized by the specific antigens that get attached on the surface of RBC’s. Blood group system is controlled by multiples alleles, so it’s a polygenic trait. The blood group expression starts from embryonic life till to the death of the organism & this phenotype of the organism never changes or can be changed. Human height is included in the quantitative trait and is a multiple allelic trait (controlled by polygenes) and is also controlled by environmental factors. Heritability with blood group provides the data to estimate the child’s height, if the parent’s height is known. It is concluded from the present study that the maximum average height in males is 5`-7“ & in females is 5`-3“. The minimum average height in males is 5`-1“ & in females is 5`. In positive blood groups, average maximum height has been observed except of O negative blood group. There might be some chances that antigens present on RBC’s get regulated or suppressed by the growth hormones, in controlling the height of the person. While in O negative blood group; there are no antigens that are attached to the surface of RBC’s, so average maximum height has been observed.
Keywords: ABO blood groups, height

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INTRODUCTION
Blood Grouping
Humans blood group can be of many types; like ABO, MN, MNS, Rh etc. Approximately 35 blood groups are known. Blood group types are being characterized by the specific antigens that get attached on the surface of RBC’s. Blood group system is controlled by multiples alleles, so it’s a polygenic trait. This is the first discovered multiple allelic blood group. In 1901; it is discovered by Austrian immunologist Karl Landsteiner. This system has 4 phenotypes that are categorized on the basis of specific antigens that get attached on the surface of RBC’s. A blood group have Antigen A. B blood group have Antigen B. AB blood group have both Antigens A ; B. O blood group have neither Antigen A ; B
In 1905; Bernstein explained the genetic basis of this system that is encoded by single polymorphic gene, I on chromosome 9, ; it has 3 multiple alleles; IA, IB ; i. IA allele produces Antigen A. IB allele produces Antigen B. i do not specify antigen. IAIB are codominant, then they form heterozygous IAIB ; AB phenotype is formed. The blood group expression starts from embryonic life till to the death of the organism ; this phenotype of the organism never changes or can be changed. It makes blood transfusion safe; ; there are no chances of agglutination; (clumped cells mass that causes the blockage of capillaries, due to the haemolytic reaction when incompatible blood is transfused).
This ABO blood group has further extension in the form of Rh+ and Rh- signs. These signs are further giving us the information of the Rh blood group system and its antigens; Rh factors. Rh factors (antigens) first seen in Rhesus monkey so named after it. Rh is abbreviated as Rhesus factor and discovered by Landsteiner and Alexander S Wiener. Antibodies to these Rh antigens are involved in heamolytic transfusions reactions. This blood group system is encoded by C, D and E which occupy two loci, so locus C, D and E is formed. But D is important as it is based on two alleles D and d. D is dominant form while d is recessive. Genotype DD or Dd are Rh+ and genotype dd are Rh-. Rh antibody production depends on Rh antigen production stimulus.
Height:
Height means tallness of a person. According to the research 60 to 80% height is determined by the genetics and 20 to 40% by the environmental factors like weather, temperature, nutrition etc. Human height is included in the quantitative trait and controlled by polygenes and environmental factors. Heritability with the blood groups provides the data to estimate the child’s height if the parent’s height is known. Before puberty; our nutrition values matters a lot like the intake of minerals, calcium, vitamin A and D. Childhood disease may block the growth hormones which can affect the height of the individual. Height is influenced by the hormones that are controlled by the variant of genes that affects the cartilage plates of bones; blood is the medium through which these growth hormones travels to the target plates. Activities possessed by the child during its childhood matters a lot.
Objective of the present study was to correlate blood groups with height.
MATERIALS AND METHOD:
Method and Estimation of blood groups:
In consent from subject, the data collected was being determined by checking the blood group of the subject. First, placed all the components that are used to check the blood group type, then add a drop of water to each circle on the Eldoncard. Sterilize subject’s finger with alcohol wipe and pricked it. Then, transferred the drop of blood to the circles and mixed the blood and water droplet. After that add Antiserums A, B and D. Tilt the card for 10 seconds in each direction. Note the agglutination in the drop containing Antiserum. In this way, we got the blood group of the subject.
Project Designing : Total 157 subjects participated in the present study. These subjects were students in Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan; Pakistan.
Statistical Analysis: Statistical Analysis were performed by using MS Excel.
Results:
The character played by blood groups in determining the average height of the individual in the form of mean and standard deviation is given in the table below;
TABLE:
MEAN S.D MEAN S.D
A+ MALE 5.6 0.39 FEMALE 5.3 0.18
A- 5.1 3.6 5 3.53
B+ 5.7 0.12 5.2 0.28
B- 5.5 0.15 5.3 0.15
AB+ 5.7 0.2 5.2 0.10
AB- 5.2 3.67
O+ 5.6 0.26 5.3 0.21
O- 5.3 0.17

DISSCUSSION:
Important advancement in recent research has shown, that blood group depends on the antigens that gets attached to RBC’s while height depends on separate genes; though both are polygenic traits. No other findings are related to this project.
Conclusion:
It is concluded from the present study that the maximum average height in males is 5`-7“ ; in females is 5`-3“. The minimum average height in males is 5`-1“ ; in females is 5`. In positive blood groups, average maximum height has been observed except O negative blood group. There might be some chances that antigens present on RBC get regulated or suppressed by the growth hormones, in controlling the height of the person. While in O negative blood group, there are no antigens that are attached to the surface of RBC so average maximum height has been observed.
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