UGR 201 Research Methodology Research Proposal Final Draft Submitted by

UGR 201
Research Methodology
Research Proposal Final Draft

Submitted by:
Gyana Yeedzin Dolma (103805)

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Royal Thimphu College
Royal University of Bhutan
Thimphu, Bhutan
10th November 2018

Research Topic:
Waste Generation and Composition.
Research Question:
The rate of waste generation and physical composition analysis.
Case: The selected rural and urban area in Thimphu.
Rationale:
The problem of solid waste management has been increasing in the past few years to solve this I want to see how much the waste is being generated by each household of a selected area and what are they doing with the waste.
The aim of this study is to document the information on waste quantity being produced and its composition in Rural and Urban area in Thimphu.
Objectives:
• Determining waste composition.
• Percentage composition of waste. (sorted into six different categories)
o Glass,
o Plastic,
o Paper,
o Metal,
o Organic and
o Other waste.
• Waste generation rate of two groups of residential areas
o Area (Rural and Urban)
o Income (Low, Middle and High)
• To find out if they segregate the waste.
• To compare rural and urban, how much the waste is generated.
• To discuss household behavior regarding waste generation and management of waste.
Keyword:
• Solid Waste Management (SWM).
• Waste Composition.
• Waste Generation.
• Household.

Literature Review

Introduction
In historic time the waste is disposed onto unpaved streets and roadways, where they had been left to cumulate. According to Nathanson J.A, in Athens the regulation forbidding practice became established and the gadget for waste elimination advanced in Greece.
Solid waste management (SWM) is one of the most vital services provided by municipal governments over the world. The ways of dealing with, series and disposal of the waste can pose risks to the surroundings in addition to the general public fitness. In most urban communities, huge numbers of strong wastes are generated every day that need everyday series, transportation and disposal. Those operations need to be done quickly and successfully without incurring excessive cost or damage to the surroundings. Success of any municipal solid waste control machine is predicated on information approximately the amount and varieties of fabric being generated as waste. As in all growing international locations, elevated strong waste technology and associated problems and because of speedy urbanization and populace increase.
Solid Waste Related issue.
According to Nyankson et.al (2015) as in all developing countries, improved solid waste technology and related issues in Ghana are because of fast urbanization and population growth. As stated by Nyankson et.al (2015), “Sekondi-Takoradi, a rapidly developing town in Ghana is riddled with mounting strong waste management problems”. Because of the population increase and increases in dwelling standards, types and the amount of stable waste dramatically raised up (Nyankson et.al., 2015). The severity of the problem is seen via unsightly thousands of wastes along streets, drains, ditches, canals and open areas of the metropolis. Loss of any scientific examine at the solid waste trouble has left without a proper approach for mitigating the trouble.
The disposal and control of solid waste in growing nations, has persevered because of the absence of the precise and prepared waste disposal and managing tradition which arises largely from monetary constraints, and that is because of the fact that most cities in growing nations are almost choked up because of the manner of urbanization, that is one of the primary abilities of the twenty first century (Makinde. R., 2000).
In step with Batool. S.A. (2009) in maximum of the Pakistani cities sixty percent of the waste is accrued and ninety percent of the gathered waste finally ends up in open dumping. In Greece several waste composition studies had been carried out inside the beyond twenty however they have been no longer achieved the usage of the same technique or underneath a scientific method dictated with the aid of organized regional waste management strategies (Girdarakos. E., 2005). Financial increase, urbanization, demographic boom and changing living are the key motives at the back of growth in MSW generation in Pakistan (Batool. S.A., 2008).
If the waste is not sorted or disposed properly it creates threat to a public health and surrounding. The supply of more communal trash boxes and gathering of waste could help saving the exposing general public in municipalities to sicknesses if they were properly educated (Adongo. P. B., et.al 2014).
Types of Waste.
In different countries waste are categorized in different types. According to Mondal P, he classified waste into four different types that are Organic waste which includes kitchen waste and so on, Toxic waste which incorporate fertilizer and pesticide, Recyclable comprise of metal, paper and so on and Hospital waste.
Importance of Waste Management.
The waste collection plays a vital role throughout the globe and the cleanliness operates with people’s health. As Mohammed. P (2016) stated that, “The most important reason for waste collection is the protection of the environment and the health of the population”. In ancient time people dug a hole and buried their waste and they considered as a successful technique since their population was small and produced less waste (Mohammed. P., 2016).
Conclusion.
Success of any municipal solid waste control machine is predicated on information approximately the amount and varieties of fabric being generated as waste. As in all growing international locations, elevated strong waste technology and associated problems and because of speedy urbanization and populace increase. As in all developing countries, improved solid waste technology and related issues in Ghana are because of fast urbanization and population growth.
S.A. in maximum of the Pakistani cities sixty percent of the waste is accrued and ninety percent of the gathered waste finally ends up in open dumping.
In Greece several waste composition studies had been carried out inside the beyond twenty however they have been no longer achieved the usage of the same technique or underneath a scientific method dictated with the aid of organized regional waste management strategies. According to Mondal P, he classified waste into four different types. In ancient time people dug a hole and buried their waste and they considered as a successful technique since their population was small and produced less waste.

Methodology:
• Population:
o The population of this study will be the households of Thimphu (selected area of Rural and Urban).
• Survey Method:
o A primary data will be collected, through questionnaire since it is convenient for me to gather a data. And I will be collecting waste from a surveyed household as sample. The sample waste will be hand sorted into 6 different categories. The price or cost will be less, I only need the fund for transportation and printing my questionnaire.
• Sampling Method and Sample Size:
o Probability Sampling (Simple Random Sampling). Simple Random Sampling is feasible because population in which each household of the subset has an equal probability of being selected. A simple random sampling is unbiased to a representation of a group. And nearly 10 household will be selected from Rural and nearly 10 household from Urban because it is suitable number to reach the minimum sample size of 100 – 200 kg needed for the characterization studies as demanded by EPA (1996). the study for household waste generation can be made from a small number of households.
o Procedure:
? Visit the selected area of Thimphu (Urban and Rural area) at a suitable time.
? Visit every tenth house for both Rural and Urban area, give the household member to fill up the questionnaire and collect their waste for segregating.
? And as a token of appreciation I will be giving a chocolate.
• Measurement:
o The measurement for this study will be using Nominal, Ordinal and Scale with the mixture of quantitative and qualitative data.
o Nominal Variables: For the nominal variables, histogram and bar graphs will be using.
o Ordinal Variables: To interpret the data for ordinal variable bar graphs will be using.

• Ethics: The study of a waste generation of a household will be based on the willingness of that precise household to take part in it.

• Questionnaire:
The rate of waste generation and physical composition analysis.
Case: The selected rural and urban area in Thimphu.
Royal Thimphu College
Thimphu: Bhutan
Gyana Yeedzin Dolma.
The aim of this study is to gather initial information to evaluate the Household waste generation and physical composition in Rural and Urban area of Thimphu. And this study will help how much waste quantity is being produce in a household.
• This questionnaire must be answered by owner of house.
• Please go through the instruction applicable to each question and pick out correct answer for each question.
• The household owner’s detail will be confidential, and it will be only used for academic purposes.

Date………………………………………………………………
Name…………………………………………………………….
Age………………………………………………………………..
Gender……………………………………………………………
Occupation………………………………………………………
Contact No………………………………………………………

Please put (tick) in the appropriate box/boxes for your answer.
1. What number of people are presently living in this house?
………………………………………………………………………………………

2. In what kind of container do you collect waste?
a. Waste Basket
b. Bucket
c. Other (specify)………………………………………….

3. How often the waste container is emptied?
a. Once a Day
b. Once in two days
c. Once in three days
d. Once a week
e. Other (specify)…………………………………………

4. Where do you usually put away collected wastes?
a. In the itinerant waste van
b. By the road or street side
c. In a hoe in own compound
d. Other (specify)…………………………………………

5. Are there any public bins near your house?
a. Yes
b. No
If YES, how long does it take to get there?
a. 5-10 min
b. 11-15 min
c. 16-20 min
d. 21-25 min

6. If there are public bins, how often are the nearest public bins emptied?
a. Once a week
b. Twice a week
c. Thrice a week
d. Everyday
e. Don’t know

7. How do you evaluate the state of solid waste collection in your house area?
a. Good
b. Fair
c. Not good
d. Don’t have

8. Do you segregate the waste? If YES specify.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
9. Can you roughly identify percentage composition of your generated waste?
a. Kitchen waste…………. %
b. Plastic …………%
c. Paper ……………%
d. Solids ……………………%
e. Others …………. %

Budget Planning.
Activity Estimated Expenditure
Survey Question Printouts NU.120/-
Travel Expenses NU.500/-
Other Expenses NU.300/-

Research Schedule.
Year 2018 2019
August Sept. Oct. Nov. Feb. Mar. April. May. Jun.
Research Question

Literature Review

Methodology

Questionnaire

Presentation

Data Collection
Data Interpretation
Final Report.

Reference.

Adongo. P. B., Chirawurah.D., Yoda. R.M., Domestic waste disposal practice and
perceptions of private sector waste management in urban Accra., 2014 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4226987
Ahmad. S. R., Llyas. H., Llyas. S., and Ch. M. N., Waste Resource 2017, 7:3 DOI:
10.4172/2252-5211.1000297
Batool. S.A., Chaudhry MN (2009) Municipal solid waste management in Lahore
City District, Pakistan. Waste Management 29: 1971-1981.
Batool. S.A., Chaudhry N, and Majeed K (2008) Economic potential of recycling
business in Lahore, Pakistan. Waste Management 28: 294-298.
Efe. S. I., Journal of Environmental Protection, 2013, 4, 4-11
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jep.2013.44A002 Published Online April 2013 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/jep)
Fei-Baffoe. B., Gorkeh-Miah. J., and Nyankson, E. A., 2014. Municipal Solid
Waste Management in Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis, Ghana, Journal of Waste Management, vol. 2014, Article ID 823752, 9 pages, doi:10.1155/2014/823752.
Gidarakos. E., Havas. G., and Ntzamilis. P., Waste Management (2005)
Makinde. R., “Making Nigerian Towns and Cities Liv- able in the 21st century,”
2000.

Mohamed. D., The importance of Waste Management and Recycling, published
on 7 March 2016 https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/importance-waste-management-recycling-dee-mohammed
Mondal. P., Solid Waste Management: Types, Sources, Effects and Methods of
Solid Waste Management http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/waste-management/solid-waste-management-types-sources-effects-and-methods-of-solid-waste-management/9949