UK COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND COMPUTING Pearson BTEC LEVEL 5 HND Diploma in Health and Social Care Danut Gabriel Tomniuc student nr

Pearson BTEC LEVEL 5 HND Diploma in Health and Social Care
Danut Gabriel Tomniuc student nr:17002998

Communication in health and social care
APPLY relevant theories of communication to health
and social care contexts
1.1a Introduction
1.1b Defining terms of theory of communication
1.1c Description different theory of communication
1.1d Apply to context
It is the communication that gave the human species the opportunity to develop thinking,to advance in knowledge and to creat culture and civilization. As we observe in everyday life the process of communication is very important for everything living in this world.

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General speaking,without communication animals can not signal to other the source of danger,food, watter and the flour could not attract the insects the mediate pollination and perpetuation of the species. Since ancient times theoreticians have been preoccupied with the definition of communication.The study of communication has be came a self discipline,some research even giving the specific names.

In health and social care sector the effective communication process is highly significant.For example in care home many people carry out different activities in suport of the service users.Only very good and well – structured communication can highlight wath we can call multidisciplinary work.

Why do we need so much communication? This is a question that will receive a very eloquent answer,because it covers all social areas at all levels.Communication involves both the human factors and the enviroment.Without communication we would not have history, civilization,we would not have been able to develop ourself as humanity.In the Health and Social Care sector,without good communication with certainly,then are many problems.Example may be Victoria Climbie case,where it was seen what horrible result the lack of communication.That is why in recent years a great emphasis has been put on the application of the theories and the development of the knowledge about communication and how we apply this process.

According with Hepworth (2010) and Gambrill (2012);should be a good communication between staff and service users to have a coherent activity in the Health Care system.Communication is the key link between two people who interact professional.
1.1b DEFINING terms in communication theory
Communication theory was proposed by S.F.Scudder in the year 1980.It states that all living beings existing on the planet communicate although the way of communication is different. Thus the universal law of communication theory says that all living beings whether they are plants, animals or human beings communicate thoughts, feelings and happiness or any other information. (Article written by Practice June a, rewieved by Management Study Guide Content Team .visit on 26.03.2018 on website Communication Theory -Meaning and Example – management Study Guide)
We can define communication as processed information for example: the information is transmitted theory through speech and received after processing by hearing. In communication we need a transmitter and a receiver.Non verbal communication also needs a process of transformation in wich a receive is used,for example:the smell is taken by nose,the body language received by eye.

Communication is difficult to define,it is a different way of transmision mutual between one person or group in wich by symbols exchanging ideas and feelings, influencing and being influence by behavior. ( presented in class by teacher Stefan Alexa in 06.03.2018 at the course of communication)
1.1c DESCRIPTION of diferent communication theory
Learning theory
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING (involuntary behaviour)-learning association(Pavlov,1927)
Like many others scientific discoveries and the theory of pavlov has been conseived (based on) an another research.Pavlov study salivation in dogs when they were given food.One day he started to notice that the dog saliva every time they enter the room ,even they do not give the food.He understand an essential things,dogs do not learn to salivate when they see the food,this (salivation) being on unconditional response.

Unconditional stimul (food)= unconditional response (saliva)

Pavlov realizezi that he made a scientific discovery when during the experiment he discovered that any action or object wich the dog learns to associate with the food will cause to same reaction.The sound of the bell that Pavlov used when he was giving the food to a dog,later me him salivate.The dog was learned to make connection between sound and food.Because this was a learned answer Pavlov called him conditional stimulus.

Unconditional stimul (food)+conditional stimul (bell)=unconditional response(saliva)
Pavlov discovered that the two stimuli must be presented at a short lead time, otherwise the learning process is no longer produced. Acquisition and Extinction is basic principles of Classical Conditioning theory.Spontaneous Recovery and Stimulus Generalisation is additional principles of Classical Conditioning theory.

As a conclusion, association and repetition are the main elements under lying the theory of CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

In this theory,the focus is on significance of the effects of behavioral consequences not just of the simple association of two stimuli as in Pavlov theory.

Operant Conditioning is also called “law of effect”. The stimuli would not be specifically linked to a particular reaction, was the idea develop by Skinner . Classical Conditioning cannot fully explain the learning of complex behaviours. In an attempt to explain the training of a animal or learning a child the desirable behavior E.L. Thorndike (and later Skinner), identified the principles of what we call Operative Conditioning. (instrumental) Thorndike(1938)
Unlike his Pavlov dog was tied ,in Skinner experiments animals move independently and operate on the enviroment.To be able to sample his experiment Skinner has built a relatively small box in wich the animals move on their own,also called Skinner Box. This box helped him to assert that the behavior that led to a succes was followed by strengthening stimuli that will help contribute to its further consolidation.So he could argue that the frequency of occurance of that behavior.

Reinforcement it’s the first steps to Operant Conditioning learning.Have two kind,positive and negative wich increase the frequency of an operant.

Punishment is completely opposite to Reinforcement. Hear positive and negative decrease the frequency of an operant.

Extinction in Operant Conditioning learning is similar to that of Classical Conditioning
Generalisation and Discrimination explains the similar response depicted by an organism due to a difference stimuli.

Spontaneous Recovery is the reappearance of a response and depend of the time elapsed since Extinction.
Skinner B.F. (1938) The behavior of organism N.Y.

Schedules of Reinforcement -play a central role in the Operant Conditioning
Continuous reinforcement (CRF)- Every occurance of the response is reinforced (e.g.:to give your child a chocolate every day after he did homework)
Fixed ratio (FR) -The reinforce is given after the subject makes a certain number of response (e.g:sales commission a worker earns a commissions for every third sale that they make)
Variable ratio (VR) -is a schedule of Reinforcement wher a response is reinforced
(e.g:collect taken in video games)
Fixed interval (FI) -The reinforce is given after the subject makes a certain number of response (e.g.:a weekly paycheck)
Variable interval (VI) -is a schedule of Reinforcement where a response is rewarded after an unpredictable amount of time has passed.This interval varios randomly after each reinforcement to the next (e.g.:your employer checking your work;these check – ins occur at unpredictable times so you never know when they might happen)
In Health and Social Care understanding and applying theories of learning can enhance the communication process.Learning is relatively permanent change in behaviour or behaviour potential,that occur as the result of Practice, training or experience (Griffin and Moor head, 2012)
Griffin R.W. and Moorhead G.(2012) Organizational behaviour – managing people and organisation .Mason O.H. USA: South-Western Cangage Learning

1.1d Apply theories to context
Study case:”ANNA”
„Anna,a 35-year-old woman……was diagnosed with a strok”
a-her face would not work properly and her arms and legs felt like lead weight
b-the brain worked but she body stop responding ( she made an effort to speak but her works were slurred
c-face dropped,lost control of her bladder.

a-spent 20 minute to trying to get through to a medical emergency telephone – increasingly frustrated
b-had asked the duty receptionist for help
c-told the doctor repeatedly that his wife had nothing to drink and insisted that the doctor examine his wife
a– appeared focused on on thing;how much alcohol Anna had consumed,accused Anna of being drunk
b – pulled away sharply,with a look of disgust on his face
c-discharged Anna without examining it and no medicine was prescribed
a-no medical staff came to assistance
b-during the consultation no nurse was present and medical history ws taken
c-many drunks take up the hospitals valuable time for dealing with real emergencies
a-dissatisfied with the treatment the couple went to their GP
b-GP sent the the couple directly to a different hospital
c-In other hospital Anna was diagnosed with a stroke.

. Classical Condition
Unconditional Stimulus = US
Unconditional Response=UR
Conditional Stimulus = CS
Conditional Response=CR
Meat (US)> Salivation (UR)
Meat (US)+Bell (CS)>Salivation (UR)
Bell (CS)> Salivation(CR)

USE Communication skills in Health and Social Care Context
To demonstrate what the communication skills are to be first identified and once done,have to be classification into certain category, .If we strictly follow the dictionary ,communication skills it would by:” The ability to conveyor share ideas and feeling effectively” (visit on 18.04.2018).

Ideas and feelings.The question is:how? By whom? That is why we need to go deeper and seek to identify the direct elements that can be called communication skills.Should be tried in certain categories, depending on the subject,to evaluate them ,see how we can use them to get maximum performance and how they can be develop and passed on. Identifying and developing communication skills pozitive rezults well by seen immediately after their application.With certainy the results will be positive in relationships with the service users and their family,in relationships with their works colleagues,in ability to communicate with all those who make up the so called”multi disciplinary working”.

Because then a several types of communication,such as verbal,non-verbal,body language,you need to learn and apply as many as possible communication skills.According to Barnard (2001) in the Healt System need very strong communication skills.A good communication helps provide clear information and develop relationship in the work place.Have a clear connection with each other. You can be a good communicator if you do not know to listen;you will never be respected if you cannot respect others;in short,the more communication skills you apply in your relationship,you will feel more appreciated by those around you.

Listening,writing and speaking are all skills we use in life,work place,relationship, family and is the main example or communication skills.

According Strevithick(2012) workers in Health and Social Care system will need to take order to maximize their effectiveness.

When communicating with vulnerable people like in Health and Social Care our ability to communicate is a key part and essential skill (Moss 2017).

In the introduction I have is specified the importance of communication skills but we need to have a great deal of care as we apply this skills because if we do not apply them correctly we can make mistakes with negative consequences .

A verbal barrier is language. We need to develop our ability to speak English correctly,persevering daily reading extensively practicing.

The role of atitude is very high in communication.A positive attitude make communication commerce easier bringing benefits to everyone.

The interaction between two people may be positive or negative,becoming negative when it cames to competition, the desire to prove that you are right are better and you know more.In Health and Social Care,that the interaction must be, or become always positive, because there’s a professional interaction in which you have the ability to adapt to the contest.To look interesed,relaxed and smile on your lips,learning towards the interlocutor and keeping visual contact,assertive but enthusiastic,listening with interest and asking question to help the one in front of you develop their idea, will result in a positive finally and will demonstrate why communication skills are so important in communication relationships.

Non-verbal communication include gesturs, mimics of face and body movements.

Even if we have a moderate tone if we can not control our body language we may not be under as we would like.We have to understand that nonverbal communication is very much calibrating communication skills.
In written communication must adhere to writing rules,the tone must be adapted by the recipient and the mistake corrected strait away.

Case study
In my old work place (domiciliary care),I had a client,a old lady(Jeya),with Indian origins who lived with her son and his family.After having suffered a stroke, he was imobilized to bed becoming a client with special needs.
He doid not understand english and needed permanent presence of his daughter in law in the room.Communication was particulalry difficult because we used the hoist to transfer the user.The client was always sad,poor,seeamed even mad at the situationand they seem like use being always two carers.The atmosphere became more and more pressing every day and both colleagues and daughter in law(Myda),they began to lose their patience even complaining.One day when Myda was busy and we had to do without translato, I missed some words in portugues language.We immediatelly heard Jeya laughting for the first time since we visited her.She was very happy to ask me if I speak portuguese,and I responde that I live in Portugal for six years.In turn she told me she lived in a portugues colony for almost 30 years,this information was not included in the Care Plan.From that moment on,we almost could not stoping talking,more,she was happy at every visit.Slowly.i gained her confidence,and with great patience,listening to countless story of her life.i found out that she was very unhappy in that house,living in the living room,that after the death of her husband tha son brought her in England to take advantage.The daughter in law did not work and a s mental maltreatment giving me countless example.I informed the office,which in turn informed the authorities and the client was finnaly transferred to the residential home.

So,I have to understood once again how important is communication skills.

As concluzion,because of the ability,patience and the fact that I know to listed,wich are important elements of communication skills,we succeeded together with my colleaugue to bring things to normality in the life of someone who suffered in silence.Whe succeeded to with to help the authorities to give somebody the life that was confiscated .This be the positive side ,the plus in the case presented above.Using my communication skills I have managed to gain the trust of a person who was in a very messy situation for her.

I wonder what would have happened to that lady if by chance would not haven succeeded in removing the language barrier between myself and Jeia.Probably if in Care Plan it was mentioned that client spoke portugues;would be able the communicate with her from the early days and would have avoide the unpleasant situation that happened in the meantime.

Another rhetorical question would be if now in the place where she is now,Jeia feels happier.Anyway,with certainty,she is safer away from her daughter in law,who for example mocked her in front of her granddaughter and frends.

LO1: 1.1 Apply relevant theories…

1.2 Use communication skils..

1.3 Rewiew method of dealing
1.4 Analyze the use of strategies…

LO2: 2.1 Explain how the communication…

2.2 Explain how legislation…

2.3 Analyse the effectivenes…

2.4 Suggest way to improving…

LO1: 1.1 Apply relevant theories…

1.2 Use communication skils..

1.3 Rewiew method of dealing
1.4 Analyze the use of strategies…

LO2: 2.1 Explain how the communication…

2.2 Explain how legislation…

2.3 Analyse the effectivenes…

2.4 Suggest way to improving…

LO3: 3.1 Acces and use standard…

3.2 Analyze the benefits of using…

3.3 Analyze how legal cosiderations…

Review methods of dealing with inappropriate interpersonal communication between individuals in Health and Social Care.

“Interpersonal communication is a special form of unnmediate human communication that occurs when we interact simultaneously with another person and attempt to mutually influence each other,ussualy for the purpose of managing relationship.”(Kanu 2008).

Interpersonal communication is the dialogue between two more people who are trying to convey to each other as clearly as possible ideas , interest , needs , thoughts , aspiration , emotions and much more . During this communication, the interlocutor speak in turn trying to respect and understand each other. Regardless of the message sent,it must be understood that the person who receives the message must understand it being a direct message.

Listening with carefully and respect,accepting values and culture,with optimism,trust,clarity and accuracy.with balanced non verbal communication,offering options of expression,speaking then,we can say there is a very good interpersonal communication.

There are ,however some elements that improperly influence, including the environment, noises, behaviour, varios signs, barrier language, and cultural barriers,who bring a minus called inappropriate interpersonal communication.It is much easier to receive the information that corresponds to the ideas that guide as alive.Each receiver has a filter that selecte information and decodes it as it has been trained throughtout life,because the man when he was born is “naked”.

From the first years of life,we learn how to communicate between mother and parent being a good interpersonal communication.Perceptions that show us exactly how we see life,stereotyps and prejudices are learned over time and influence our commerce quality with a fals link to reality usually not being gained from our own experience.

Interperssonal communication is like a battery,has two terminals,communicator and receiver.Any battery needs to run both positive and negative elements, called anode and cathode. Interpersonal communication was not, and probably will never be perfect. If so, we would not call people, maybe robots. Everything has to be done to improve our interpersonal communication, to increase the pluses (anode) and to reduce the minuses (cathode). What would it mean to reverse poles?; certainly the battery would not work anymore.