With such pieces of evidence shown above

With such pieces of evidence shown above, I do not entirely agree with UNDP?s (2010) assertions that any slight change in climate would spell doom among Zambians. It was rather too over generalised because climate change in such areas as those shown above did not entirely prove to be a doom but also a boon. I therefore, recommend that further researches be conducted by UNDP on care-based epistemologies of climate change rather than over emphasis on the risk epistemologies, this would provide a broader spectrum for decision making.
On the contrary, 12.5 per cent of responses by some residents within Siamunyemba Village showed that climate change had contributed to an increase in water scarcity. A similar view was also upheld (8.4 per cent) among some residents of Lumumba Compound. Water scarcity as one
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of the effects of climate change in Chongwe District only emerged among residents of Kanakantapa Village where it accounted for 8.4 per cent of all perceived effects. However, it was one of the commonly perceived effects of climate change in Nyangu Village (nine per cent), Robert Village (eight per cent), Chilukusha-A Village (2.7 per cent), Chilukusha-B Village (three per cent) and Mphuka Village where it scored two per cent of all perceived effects. According to the Devolution Trust Fund (DTF) (2009) annual report, over three million people in Zambia still do not have access to safe drinking water supply. This has seen a number of people resorting to unsafe sources of water and poor sanitation. Culturally, water is regarded to be a social good especially in rural areas such as those of Luangwa, Chongwe and Kafue Districts. Therefore, its scarcity especially in the face of climate change signified a gap in terms of their cultural system. National Water Supply and Sanitation Council (NWASCO) (2010) further added that due to climate change patterns, the country and particularly studied areas experienced a lot of droughts and floods impacting on water service delivery. In that context, some residents of Marapodi Compound also pointed out shortage of clean water as one of the most perceived (23.6 per cent) effects of climate change in the compound due to climate change- induced increase in floods. Flood waters in Marapodi Compound could have led to mixing of turbid-dirt-ridden surface runoff with water-wells in the neigbourhoods thereby, depriving people of clean water.
Increase in droughts was among commonly spread (appeared in all districts) effects of climate change among residents of selected areas in Lusaka Province. For instance, 4.4 per cent of responses by residents of Nyangu Village isolated it as one of the effects of climate change. It also emerged in Robert Village (eight per cent), Chilukusha-A Village (8.1 per cent), Chilukusha-B Village (three per cent), Katondwe Village (7.1 per cent) and Mphuka Village where it scored two per cent of all perceived effects. Luangwa District where such areas are found is generally vulnerable to climatic hazards because of its location in the agro-ecological region-I as earlier shown in figure four (MTENRs, 2007). Despite some occasional floods, the area is generally prone to droughts and aridity, which must have gotten worse with the advent of climate change as also confirmed by DMMU (2010) and UNDP (2010). Moreover, 8.4 per cent of responses from Kanakantapa Village of Chongwe District also showed that climate change- induced increase in droughts was prevalent. A similar view (5.5 per cent) also emerged in
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Mandevu Compound of Lusaka Province, with five per cent and 8.5 per cent of responses captured from Lumumba Compound and Siamunyemba Village showing the same effect respectively. This partly explains why some residents raised concerns on increased water scarcity, crop failure and decreased crops yields as earlier discussed. At the same time, some residents complained of increase in floods, which were the most perceived (14 per cent to 40 per cent) especially among residents of peri-urban compounds of Lusaka District.
Evidence from table eight showed that increased flood was the most perceived (40 per cent) effect of climate change in Misisi Compound. Twenty-two per cent of responses from Mandevu Compound also showed a similar effect, with 35 per cent of responses from Bauleni Compound showing the same. A similar view also surfaced among residents of Kalikiliki Compound (15 per cent), Old Kanyama Compound (14 per cent) and Marapodi Compound (23.6 per cent). It must be emphasized that residents of above mentioned peri-urban compounds have had a long interaction with annual flooding, which might have just gotten worse especially during climate change era. Ecologically, these compounds had been underlined by limestone whose drainage system is very poor leading to quick accumulation of rain water on the surface and subsequent flooding of the area, a phenomenon which had triggered subsequent socio-economic challenges in the last 10 years before 2011. Such subsequent effects will soon be discussed as opined by respondents. Some residents of Lusoke and Kanakantapa Villages also complained of climate change-induced increase in floods as highlighted in 20 per cent and 4.2 per cent of their responses respectively. Both Lusaka and Chongwe District are geographically in the plateau area (ecological region-IIa) which receives fairly high amounts of rainfall as earlier indicated under description of study area in chapter three. Hence, increased in floods especially in the face of climate change could not be escaped.
Premised on the above discussion, I partly disagree with Madison?s (2007) over generalisation shown in literature review that Zambia had experienced a significantly drier climate according to the peoples? views. This is because climate change could make some area drier and others wetter as evidenced in above discussion. As such, there should be spatial contextualisation of researches on climate change because it may not necessarily affect different areas in the same way. This
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also shows the urgent need for contextual adaptation planning if we are to curb the impact of climate change in Zambia and particularly among studied areas.
Climate change is most often associated with various diseases, which are escalated by such events as floods and droughts as also noticed in this research. Four per cent of responses by residents of Mphuka Village showed that climate change had contributed to increase in malaria cases. This complaint was also captured from Katondwe Village (14.2 per cent), Chilukusha-A Village (10.8 per cent), Robert Village (four per cent) and Nyangu Village (6.6 per cent). Moreover, climate change-induced increase in malaria cases was also recorded (10 per cent) among some residents of Lusoke Village with 6.7 per cent of responses from Chongwe Compound showing a similar view. In Kampekete Village, increase in malaria as one of the effects of climate change accounted for 8.3 per cent of all those which were perceived. In Lusaka District, climate change-induced increase in malaria cases emerged from Bauleni Compound (20 per cent), Kalikiliki Compound (15 per cent), Old Kanyama Compound (two per cent) and Marapodi Compound where it accounted for 23. 6 per cent of all perceive effects. In Kafue District and particularly in Lumumba Compound, it accounted for five per cent of all perceived effects with 2.6 per cent of responses from Siamunyemba Village showing the same. According to Kapoor (2001), events such as floods (especially less mobile) such as those in Misisi Compound, among others activate over breeding of malaria-carrying mosquitoes, which could have led to such malaria cases as noticed above. Some residents of Lumumba Compound thought that climate change had increased mosquito breeding as showed in 3.4 per cent of their responses. In fact, the National Adaptation Programme on Action (NAPA) by MTENRs (2007) earlier showed that Malaria would be on the increase, so such results as those obtained among